Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2017. 12(2):78-86.

The Cognitive and Psychological Factors (Personality, Driving Behavior, and Mental illnesses) as Predictors in Traffic Violations
Seyyed Salman Alavi, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Hamid Soori, Maryam Ghanizadeh

Abstract


Objective: Driving is a complex behavior and is affected by several factors. This cohort study aimed at representing the main determinants such as personality features, driving behavior, and mental illnesses on driving violation based on logistic regression.

Method: In this cohort study, 800 heavy truck and lorry drivers were recruited. Participants were selected from those individuals who referred to Imam Sajjad hospital in Tehran, Iran during fall 2013 to summer 2015. Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), Big Five Personality Test (NEO Personality Inventory), and SADS (Semi-Structural Interview) were used in this study. After 2 years, we checked all traffic violations caused by human factors involving the drivers. SPSS Version 18 was used for data analysis; t test and logistic regression (OR) was also used. 

Results: The findings of the present study revealed significant differences between the 2 groups of drivers (those who were and were not involved in driving offenses) with respect to controlling the effective and demographic variables. Moreover, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the chance of accidents (2.4 and 2.7 accidents odds, respectively) (P = 0.04, P = 0.004). Furthermore, just neuroticism could increase 1.1 odds of traffic offences (P = 0.009), but other personality traits did not have an effect on the equation.

Conclusion: Consistent with previous examinations, some mental disorders may affect traffic violations.  Considering the magnitude and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is essential to evaluate multiple psychological factors in drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s licenses.


Keywords


Traffic Violations; Humanistic Factors; Mental Disorders; Personality Characteristics; Driving Behavior

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gosselin D, Gagnon S, Stinchcombe A, Joanisse M. Comparative optimism among drivers: An intergenerational portrait. Accid Anal Prev 2010; 42: 734–740.

Alavi SS, Mohammadi MR, Soori H, Jannatifard F, MohammadiKalhori S. [The determination of cognitive-behavioral features of bus and truck drivers during road accidents in 2013-2014 (persion)]. Journal of Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention 2016; 3: 223-232.

Bagherie khalili F, Sheikhol Eslami A. [Analizing on research in effective factor on urban road accident (persian)]. Rahvar 2011; 8: 93-116.

Thompson JP, Baldock MR, Mathias JL, Wundersitz LN. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers. Accid Anal Prev 2013; 50: 768-775.

Soori H, Eini E, Mahfoozpour S, Masoodinejad M, Hatamabadi H, Vafaee R, et al. [Behavioral factors as the causes of road traffic injuries (persian)]. Rahvar 2008; 5: 124-143.

Gordis L. Epidemiology. eds5. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2014.

Af Wahlberg AE, Barraclough P, Freeman J. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as accident predictor; A methodological re-meta-analysis. J Safety Res 2015; 55: 185-212.

Nakagawa Y, Park K, Kumagai Y. Elderly drivers' everyday behavior as a predictor of crash involvement--Questionnaire responses by drivers' family members. Accid Anal Prev 2013; 50: 397-404.

af Wahlberg AE, Dorn L. "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis" Comments. Journal of safety research. 2012; 43: 83-85.

de Winter JC, Dodou D. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: a meta-analysis. J Safety Res 2010; 41: 463-470.

Bergomi M, Vivoli G, Rovesti S, Bussetti P, Ferrari A, Vivoli R. Role of some psycho-physiological factors on driving safety. Ann Ig 2010; 22: 387-400.

Parker D, West R, Stradling S, Manstead AS. Behavioural characteristics and involvement in different types of traffic accident. Accid Anal Prev 1995; 27: 571-581.

Iliescu D, Sarbescu P. The relationship of dangerous driving with traffic offenses: A study on an adapted measure of dangerous driving. Accid Anal Prev 2013; 51: 33-41.

Oreizi HR, Haghshenas SA. [The psychometric properties of Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Payesh (journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research ) 2009; 9: 21-28.

Alavi SS, Mohammadi M, Soori H, Mohammadi Kalhori S, Sepasi N, Khodakarami R, et al. Iranian Version of Manchester Driving Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ): Psychometric Properties. Iranian journal of psychiatry 2016; 11: 37-42.

Haghshenas H. Big five factor of personality properties. 1st ed.Shiraz: Shiraz University Of Medical Sciences; 2009.

Yadollahi P, Khalaginia Z, Vedadhir A, Ariashekouh A, Taghizadeh Z, Khormaei F. [The study of predicting role of personality traits in the perception of labor pain (Persian)]. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2014; 19: 97-102.

Rahimi-Movaghar A Aminesmaeeli M, Sharifi V, Hajebi A, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, Motevalian A. Iranian mental health survey: design and field proced. Iran J Psychiatry 2014; 9: 96-109.

Simpson SG, McMahon FJ, McInnis MG, MacKinnon DF, Edwin D, Folstein SE, et al. Diagnostic reliability of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002; 59: 736-740.

Mohammadi M, Davidian H, Noorbala A, Malekafzali H, Naghavi H, Pouretemad HR, et al. [The Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in Iran (Persian)].Hakim 2005; 1: 55-64.

Fernandes R, Hatfield J, RF Soames Job. A systematic investigation of the differential predictors for speeding, drink-driving, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seat belt, among young drivers. Transportation Research 2010; 13: 179-196.

Clinton S, Barry CW, JL A. Can organizational safety climate and occupational stress predict work-related driver fatigue? Transportation ResearchPart F 2008; 11: 418-426.

Tronsmoen T. Associations between self-assessment of driving ability, driver training and crash involvement among young drivers. Transportation ResearchPart F 2008; 11: 334-346.

Vaez M, Laflamme L. Impaired driving and motor vehicle crashes among Swedish youth: an investigation into drivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Accident analysis and prevention 2005; 37: 605-611.

Lin MR, Huang W, Hwang HF, Wu HD, LL Y. The effect of crash experience on changes in risk taking among urban and rural young people. Accid Anal Prev 2004; 36: 213-222.

Dehghan H, Habibi E, Khodarahmi B, Yousefi HA, Hasanzadeh A. The relationship between observational–perceptual heat strain evaluation method and environmental/physiological indices in warm workplace. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 2013; 29: 104-107.

Habibi E, Haghi A, Maracy MR. Investigating the predictive of risk-taking attitudes and behaviors among Iranian drivers. Journal of education and health promotion 2014; 3: 19.

Haghdoost AA, Baneshi MR, Zare M. [Frequency and Probable Causes of Road Accidents Related to the Staff and Faculties of Medical Sciences in Kerman University during 2012-2013 (Persian)]. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences 2014; 13: 445-456.

Tuokko HA, McGee P, Gabriel G, Rhodes RE. Perception, attitudes and beliefs, and openness to change: implications for older driver education. Accid Anal Prev 2007; 39: 812-817.

Meuser TM, Carr DB, Irmiter C, Schwartzberg JG, Ulfarsson GF. The American Medical Association Older Driver Curriculum for health professionals: changes in trainee confidence, attitudes, and practice behavior. Gerontol Geriatr Educ 2010; 31: 290-309.

Onyema CR, Oladepo O. Knowledge and attitude of safety belt use among professional drivers in a tertiary Nigerian institution. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2011; 18: 57-64.

Purc-Stephenson RJ, Ren J, Snowdon AW. An exploratory study of parents' use and knowledge of car safety seats in Beijing, China. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2010; 17: 231-238.

Wang X, Chen N, Shi Z, Zhao Z. An investigation on knowledge-attitude-practice about injury and the related factors among school children's parents in Jinan, China. I Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2012; 19: 267-271.

Mirzaei R, Hafezi-Nejad N, Sadegh Sabagh M, Ansari Moghaddam A, Eslami V, Rakhshani F, et al. Dominant role of drivers' attitude in prevention of road traffic crashes: a study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers in Iran. Accid Anal Prev 2014; 66: 36-42.

Refahi Z, Rezaei A, Aganj N, Moradi Birgani R. Investigation of Psychological-Social Factors Predicative of Traffic Accidents in Shiraz city. J Life Sc 2012; 2: 243-251.

Aduen PA, Kofler MJ, Cox DJ, Sarver DE, Lunsford E. Motor vehicle driving in high incidence psychiatric disability: comparison of drivers with ADHD, depression, and no known psychopathology. Journal of psychiatric research 2015; 64: 59-66.

Da Silva-Junior FP, de Pinho RS, de Mello MT, de Bruin VM, de Bruin PF. Risk factors for depression in truck drivers. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 2009; 44: 125-129.

Kaplan BJ, Sadock VA. Synopsis of psychiatry:behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 10th ed. NewYork: Guilford Press; 2007.

Asghari F, Mohammadi N, Rezazadeh Mehrjoo M. [The Survey Relationship Between Anxiety and Agression with Driving psychology (Persian)]. Rahvar. 2015;12:49-61

Wang P, Rau PL, Salvendy G. Road safety research in China: review and appraisal. Traffic Inj Prev 2010; 11: 425-432.

Ledesma RD, Montes SA, Poo FM, Lopez-Ramon MF. Individual differences in driver inattention: the attention-related driving errors scale. Traffic injury prevention 2010; 11: 142-150.

Guo M, Wei W, Liao G, Chu F. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers. Accid Anal Prev 2016; 92: 9-14.

Dahlen ER , White RP. The Big Five factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger in the prediction of unsafe driving. Personality and Individual Differences 2006; 41: 903-915.

Brown TG, Ouimet MC, Eldeb M, Tremblay J, Vingilis E, Nadeau L, et al. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving. PloS one 2016; 11: e0150227.

Vassallo S, Lahausse J, Edwards B. Factors affecting stability and change in risky driving from late adolescence to the late twenties. Accident; analysis and prevention 2016; 88: 77-87.

Jafarpour S, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014; 28: 142.

Rad M, Martiniuk AL, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Mohammadi M, Rashedi F, Ghasemi A. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran. Glob J Health Sci 2016; 8: 51677.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.