Predicting dimensions of psychological well being based on religious orientations and spirituality: an investigation into a causal model.
AbstractObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of predicting psychological well-being based on spirituality and religiousness. Methods: A sample of 300 participants was selected from the whole entrants to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University using a random cluster sampling. The tools of this study were the Spiritual Scale of Ironson, the Internal and External Orientations of Allport and Ross, Spiritual Religious Orientation of Betson and Showinerdand and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. To analyze the results of this study, we used the statistical method of Pearson correlation and we also performed the path analysis. Multiple regressions were used in a hierarchical simultaneous way in accordance with the stages of Barron and Kenny. Results: The following results were obtained in this study:1)Spirituality positively predicted two religious orientations (question and internal) among which the internal spirituality possessed a higher degree of predictability; 2)Thro gh intra-religious orientation, and in a direct way, spirituality predicted psychological well-being; 3)The internal orientation was the only strong mediator in the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being. Conclusion: Spirituality and religiosity were significant determinants of mental health, and they had more shares in psychological well-being, and made religious beliefs profound and internalized them.
Ryan M, Deci L. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions.Contemporary Educational Psychology 2001: 25. 54-67.
Diener E, Lucas R, Oishi S. Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez Eds. The handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002.
Mueller P, Plevak D, Rummans A. Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 2001: 76.
Hawks R, Hull L, Thalman L, Richins M. Review of spiritual health: Definition, role, and intervention strategies in health promotion.Am J Health Promot 1995; 9: 371-381.
Tiliopoulos N, Bikker P, Coxon M, Hawkin K. The mean and end of religiosity: a fresh look at gorden allpot religious orientation dimensions, Personality and Individual differences 2007; 42: 1609- 1620.
Allport, W, Ross, M. Personal religious orientation and prejudice, Journal of personality and social psychology 1967; 5: 432-443.
Barrett DW. Patock-Peckham J A, Hutchinson C. T&Nagoshi, CT. Cognitive motiviation and religious orientation, Personality and Individual differences 2005; 38: 461- 474.
Lewis A, Maltaby J, Day L. Religious orientation, religious coping and happiness among UK adults .Personality and Individual differences 2005; 38: 1193- 1202.
Diener E, Lucas R, Oishi S. Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In Snyder CR, Lopez SJ, Eds. the handbook of positive psychology .New York: Oxford University Press; 2002.
Lockennhoff E, Ironson H ,OCleirigh C, Costa Jr, Paul T. Five Factor Model Personality Traits, Spirituality/ Religiousness ,and Mental Health among People Living With HIV. Journal of Personality77: 2009; five, October.
Khodayarifard m, mohammadi m, abedi y. Cognitive behavior therapy for transsexual disorder based on spiritual psychotherapy: a case report.Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology 2003; 9: 3.
Mohammadi, m; akbari, al; hatami, n, mokri, a; kaviani h, salmanian m, sehat m. Investigating the effects of spiritual psychotherapy in opioid dependent patients. Hakim research journal, autumn 2011; 14: 3.
Hosseini f, mazidi m, hosseinchari m: predicting identity styles based on religious orientations. Quarterly journal of new thoughts on education 2010; 6: 53-71.
Barron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator- mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1986; 51: 1173-1182 .
Kaplan HB. Psychological stress: perspectives on structure, theory, life-course, and methods. 1st ed. USA: Academic Press; 2009.