Psychosocial Predictors of Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study
AbstractObjective: Cognitive impairment is a major public health problem among elderly population. The aim of this study was to assess some psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment (age, education, living alone, smoking, depression and social support) in the Iranian elderly population.Method: A total of 1612 elderly (over 60 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive function was assessed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In addition, data from psychological tests and demographic characteristics were analyzed.Results: Older age, low education level, living alone, smoking, depressive symptoms, and lower social support were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Ages 70 to 74 (OR = 3.47; 95% CI, 2.13-5.65), 75 to79 (OR = 3.05; 95% CI, 2.11-4.41) and 80 to 85 (OR = 5.81; 95% CI, 2.99-11.22) and depression symptoms (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.27-2.13) were significant positive predictors, whereas social support with scores ranging from 26 to 30 (OR =0. 32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.62) and 31 to 33 (OR =0.29; 95% CI, 0.14-0.61) and more than 5 years of education (OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.14-0.27) were the negative predictors of cognitive impairment.Conclusion: The findings suggest older age and depression as positive predictive factors and higher education level and social support as negative predictive factors of cognitive impairment in the elderly population.
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