Prevalence of Depression among Iranian Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • diana sarokhani Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
  • Masoumeh Parvareh Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
  • Ali Hasanpour Dehkordi Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
  • Kourosh Sayehmiri Department of Biostatistics, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Science, Ilam, Iran.
  • Abbas Moghimbeigi Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
Keywords: Depression, Elderly, Iran, Prevalence


Objective: depression is one of the most serious and prevalent mood disorders. Aging population is an important economic, social, and health challenge of the 21st century. The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of depression among the Iranian elderly through meta-analysis method.Method: Studies were searched in ISI, Scopus, Pub Med, Google Scholar, and in Iranian databases including Iran Medex, Magiran, SID, and Med Lib using the following keywords: “depression”, “prevalence”, and “elderly”. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis (random effects model). Heterogeneity among the results of the studies was examined by “I2” index. Beck, DASS-21, GHQ-28, and G DS questionnaires were used in this study, and analyses were performed using STATA Ver.11.Results: A total of 26 studies in Iran with a sample size of 5781 individuals had been found during 2001 and 2015. Prevalence of depression among Iranian elderly was estimated to be 43% (95% confidence interval (CI):30% - 55%). The findings showed that the prevalence of depression among Iranians were49% in women, 48% in men, 37% in unmarried, and 45%in the married. In addition, the prevalence of very severe, severe, moderate, and mild depression levels were estimated to be 5%, 19%, 33%, and 38% of the participants, respectively. No significant difference was observed between married and unmarried individuals. Most of Iranian elderly suffered from mild depression.Conclusion: There was high level of depression prevalence among Iranian elderly, and women were more depressed than men. So, policy makers must design and run mental health programs to decrease the prevalence of depression among Iranian elderly.


Kashfi M, Khani Jeihooni A, Farhadi S. [The relationship between social and demographic factors and prevalence of depression among over 60 years old individuals, Shiraz, Iran (Persian)]. Medical Journal of Hormozgan University 2011; 14: 319-325.

Saeedi S, Foroughan M, Akbari Kamrani A, GHaem magham farahani Z, Delbari A. [Clinical Features of Elderly Patients Admitted to Ahvaz Petroleum Hospital, 2010 (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences 2012; 19: 85-95.

Rajabizadeh G, Ramazani A. [Prevalence of Depression in Kermanian Geriatrics (2002) (Persian)]. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences 2003; 3: 58-66.

Hasanpour-Dehkordi A, Khaledi-Far A, Khaledi-Far B, Salehi-Tali S. The effect of family training and support on the quality of life and cost of hospital readmissions in congestive heart failure patients in Iran. Applied Nursing Research. 2016; 31: 165-169.

HassanpourDehkordi A, Mohammadi N, NikbakhatNasrabadi A. Hepatitis-related stigma in chronic patients: A qualitative study. Appl Nurs Res 2016; 29: 206-210.

Mohammadi N, Hassanpour Dehkordi A, NikbakhatNasrabadi A. Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis struggle to do self-care. Life Sci J 2013; 10: 457-462.

Hasanpour Dehkordi A. Influence of yoga and aerobics exercise on fatigue, pain and psychosocial status in patients with multiple sclerosis: A Randomized Trial. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2016; 56: 1417-1422.

Hasanpour-Dehkordi A. Self-care concept analysis in cancer patients: An evolutionary concept analysis. Indian J Palliat Care 2016; 22: 388-394.

Noghabi A, Zandi M, Mehran A, Alavian S, Dehkordi A. The effect of education on quality of life in patients under interferon therapy. Hepat Mon 2010 Summer; 10: 218-222.

Heydarnejad S, Dehkordi AH. The effect of an exercise program on the health-quality of life in older adults. Dan Med Bull 2010; 57: A4113.

Hassanpour-Dehkordi A, Jalali A. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons. Acta Med Iran 2016; 54: 430-436.

Southham M, Agras W, Taylor B, Kraemer H. Stress management at the work for elderly people compliance, cost benefits. health care and hypertension - related variable Psychosom Med 2001; 46: 387-97.

Ghaderi S, Sahaf R, Mohammadi Shahbalaghi F, Ansari G, Gharanjic A, Ashrafi K, et al. [Prevalence of Depression in Elderly Kurdish Community Residing in Boukan, Iran (Persian)]. Sija 2012; 7: 57-66.

khodadady N, sheikholeslami F, rezamasuoleh S, yazdani M. "Rate of depression in late-life in superannuated government employed center of ‎Guilan University of medical sciences"Persian. J Holist Nurs Midwifery 2007; 17: 16-22.

HekmatiPour N, Hojjati H, Sharif Nia H, Akhondzade G, Nikjou A, MirAbolhasani M. [Impact of Routine Exercises on Elderly’s Depression Rate (Persian)]. Health Education and Health Promotion 2013; 1: 23-32.

Alipour F, Sajadi H, Forouzan A, Nabavi H, Khedmati E. [The Role of Social Support in the Anxiety and Depression of Elderly( Persian)]. Sija 2009; 4: 53-61.

Ingersoll B, Silverman A. Cooperative group psychotherapy for the aged. The gerontologist. 1987.

Vakylabad M, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Maddah S, Hosaini M. [The effect of mind education by imagery on depression of elders (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research (IJNR). 2012; 7: 10-7.

Comer R. Abnormal Psychology. Thired Edition. Francisco: Freeman; 1998.

Sohrabi M, Zolfaghari P, Mahdizade F, Aghayan S, Ghasemian- Aghmashhadi M, Shariati Z, et al. [Evaluation and Comparison of Cognitive State and Depression in Elderly Admitted in Sanitarium with Elderly Sited in Personal Home (Persian)]. Knowledge & Health 2008; 3: 27-31.

Sheibani Tazraji F, Pakdaman S, Dadkhah A, Hasanzadeh Tavakoli M. [The Effect of Music Therapy on Depression and Loneliness in Old People (Persian)]. Sija 2010; 5: 54-60.

Hendeson J. In-home preventive health assessment and telephone case management for over 75s living alone in independent living units: A cluster randomised controlled trial [PhD thesis]. 2005.

Hosienabadi R, Goorabi K, Shareh H. [Hearing Aid Effect on Elderly's Depression in Tehran's Nursing Homes (Persian)]. Sija 2007; 2: 205-209.

Alizadeh-Khoei M, Khosbin S, Khavarpour F. [Assessing Quality of Life, Well Being and Depression Among Iranian Ederly in Australia (Persian)]. Sija 2010; 4: 15-26.

von Elm E, Altman D, Egger M, Pocock S, Gøtzsche P, Vandenbroucke J, et al. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ 2007; 335: 806-808.

Manzouri L, Babak A, Merasi M. [The Depression Status of the Elderly and It's Related Factors in Isfahan in 2007 (Persian)]. Sija 2010; 4.

Payahoo L, Khaje-bishak Y, Pourghassem Gargari B, Kabir-alavi M, Asghari Jafarabadi M. [Nutritional Status and Its Relation with Depression in Free-Living Elderly Individuals (Persian)]. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services 2013; 35: 20-25.

Malekshahi F, Dadkhah A. "The Psycho-Rehabilitative Effect of Japanese Dohsa-Hou on the Depression of the Aged People "Persian. Journal of Sabzevar University Of Medical Sciences 2001; 8: 4-11.

Alizadeh M, Hoseini M, Shojaeizadeh D, Rahimi A, Arshinchi M, Rohani H. [Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City (Persian)]. Sija 2012; 7: 66-73.

Mortazavi S, Eftekhar Ardebili H, Mohammad K, Dar ali bani R. [Mental health of elderly people in Shahrekord and its association with demographic and social factors (Persian)]. journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research (IHSR) 2011; 10: 485-492.

Mobasheri M, Moezy M. [The prevalence of depression among the elderly population of Shaystegan and Jahandidegan nursing homes in Shahrekord (Persian)]. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2010; 12: 89-94.

Eshaghi R, Shafiei N. The prevalence of depression in Isfahan elderly Proceedings of the National Conference on Aging and Medical. 2004; 323.

Mahdizadeh F. [Comparative study of cognitional situation and depression among elderly of nursing homes of Shahrood and elderly living at home in 2007 (Persian)]. Book of abstract of the third congress on elderly in Iran and the world 2007.

Gharanjik A, Mohammadi Shahbolaghi F, Ansari G, Najafi F, Ghaderi S, Ashrafi K, et al. [The Prevalence of Depression in Older Turkmen Adults in 1389 (Persian)]. Sija 2011; 6: 34-39.

Taban H, Ahmadzadeh G, Ghasemi G, Farzaneh A, Kazemi M. [Comparison of the prevalence of depression in residents of Sadeghieh nursing home and the elderly living in Isfahan (Persian)]. Journal of Isfahan Medical School 2005; 77: 55.

Rahgozar M, Mohammad NasrAbadi M. [The feeling of depression and stress among elderly (Persian)]. J Hakim 2008; 2.

Baaseri V. The study of mental health and the level of depression among elderly of Mashhad nursing homes in 2006. Book of abstract of the third congress on elderly in Iran and the world. 2007.

Alahyari T, Mirgholikhani _Tehrani N. [A study of social factors affecting depression among elderly women living in Kahrizak sanatorium (Persian)]. Social sciences 2014; 74.

Nejati V, Ashayeri H. [Evaluation of Relationship Between Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly (Persian)]. Sija 2007; 1: 112-118.

Papadopoulos F, Petridou E, Argyropoulou S, Kontaxakis V, Dessypris N, Anastasiou A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of depression in late life: a population based study from a rural Greek town. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 20: 350-357.

Gao S, Jin Y, Unverzagt F, Liang C, Hall K, Ma F, et al. Correlates of depressive symptoms in rural elderly Chinese. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009; 24: 1358-1366.

Blazer D, Williams C. Epidemiology of dysphoria and depression in an elderly population. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137: 439-444.

Chi I, Yip P, Chiu H, Chou K, Chan K, Kwan C, et al. Prevalence of depression and its correlates in Hong Kong's Chinese older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 13: 409-416.

Sadeghi M, Kazemi H. [Prevalence of Dementia and Depression among Residents of Elderly Nursing Homes in Tehran Province (Persian)]. IJPCP 2004; 9: 49-55.

Ghafari M, Sharifirad G, Zanjani S, Hassanzadeh A. [Stress, Anxiety and Depression Levels Among Elderly Referrals to Tehran Elderly Club (Persian)]. Sija 2012; 7: 53-59.

Afzalei S.M, Etemadifar Sh, Aslani Y, Hasan Pour A, Keirani Z. [Assessment of Psychosomatic Health status in Elderly Population That Coverage by Shahre - Kord Behzisty Center(Persian)]. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac. 2007; 15:38-48

Sayadi anari A, Ansari jaberi A, Khaleghi E, Nazer M. [The effect of movement therapy on depression in elderly women (Persian)]. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences 2002; 1: 157-62.

Hadianfard M, Hadianfard H. [Mental Status of Geriatric Patients with Chronic Locomotor Diseases (Persian)]. IJPCP 2004; 9: 75-83.

Sharifzadeh G, Moodi M, Akhbari H. [Investigating Health Status of Older People Supported by Imam (Persian)]. Sija 2010; 5: 52-59.

Nemati Dehkordi S, Nemati Dehkordi M, Nekuee A, Fruzande R. [The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression of Elderly (Persian)]. Armaghane danesh Journal 2008; 13: 57-64.

Shojaeizadeh D, Alizadeh M.[A comparative study on the health status (physical and mental) of elderly based on age groups of 60 years and above in the population covered by the affiliated centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Persian)].

Musavi M, Hemmati Maslakpak M, Sheikhi S, Sheikhi N. [The effect of reminiscence group therapy on the depression of the elderlies in nursing homes of Urmia (Persian)]. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2013; 11: 507-515.

How to Cite
sarokhani diana, Parvareh M, Dehkordi AH, Sayehmiri K, Moghimbeigi A. Prevalence of Depression among Iranian Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ijps. 13(1):55-4.
Review Article(s)