Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2018. 13(1):32-39.

Deficiency of Self-efficacy in Problem-solving as a Contributory Factor in Family Instability in Yazd (Iran): A Qualitative Study
Zahra Pourmovahed, Seyed Saied Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Hassan Zareei Mahmoodabadi, Hossein Tavangar, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani, Ali Akbar Vaezi

Abstract


Objective: Problem-solving ability is one of the most important means of family stability that enables the families to understand their roles, functions, and performances. Self-efficacy deficiency in problem-solving runs through many families. This qualitative study was conducted to investigate and describe how couples solve problems in their families.

Method: This study was conducted to detect couples’ self-efficacy deficiency in problem-solving using purposive sampling method. Several deep semi-structured interviews based on McMaster model and observations were conducted by nine family therapists and psychiatrists on four couples (eight persons) living in Yazd (Iran).The interviews were performed, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. The analysis was interpreted through directed content analysis methods.

Results: Families in Yazd (Iran) made some attempts to solve their problems, but their efforts were not enough, and thus they suffered from self-efficacy deficiency, which included 8 categories. The main theme distilled from the data of 17 participants was self-efficacy deficiency, which included the following categories: avoidance, insolvency, interference from others, ineffective self-treatment, behavioral problems, stubbornness, superficiality, and denial.

Conclusion: It is of paramount importance to identify self-efficacy deficiency in families and promote problem- solving programs to increase family stability. In the present study, the main deficiencies in problem-solving were detected.



Keywords


Efficacy; Family; Instability; McMaster Model; Problem

Full Text:

PDF

References


Mazaheri MA, Sadeghi MS, Heidari M. [A comparative study on perceived and ideal family structures in 5 Iranian cities (Persian)]. Journal of Psychology 2009; 13: 118-137.

Saroukhani B, Sedaghatifard M. [Generation gap in Iranian family; approaches and theories (Persian)]. Quarterly Social Sciences Bulletin 2010; 3: 7- 31.

Cavanagh S, Huston A. The timing of family instability and children’s social development. Journal of Marriage and Family 2008; 70: 1258–1269.

Craigie TL, Brooks-Gunn J, Waldfogel J. Family structure, family stability, and outcomes of five-year-old children. FamRelatshSoc 2012;1: 43–61.

GoldbergJ S, Carlson MJ. Parents' relationship quality and children’s behavior in stable married and cohabiting families. Journal of Marriage and Family 2014; 76: 762-777.

Brown Susan L. Marriage and child well-being: Research and policy perspectives. J Marriage Fam 2010; 72: 1059-1077.

AttariYA, BshlydhK, Yousefi N, Nabav I, Hesar J. [Effectiveness of two approaches counseling and psychoanalysis in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety and aggression among women requesting divorce in family counseling center in Sagar (Persian)].. Journal of Educational and Psychology Studies 2006; 7: 63-85.

Bolhari J, RamezanZadeh F, Abedininia N, Naghizadeh MM, Pahlavani H, Saberi M. The survey of divorce incidence in divorce applicants in Tehran. Journal of Family and Reproductive Health 2012; 6: 129-137.

VijehFayyazA, MoradiSh, Fadaei Z, HabibiAsgarabadi M. [Comparative study of the prevalence of child abuses in high school students the base on sex, educational level and history of divorce in the family (Persian)]. Journal of Family Study 2008; 14: 145-65.

KameliMJ. [A descriptive study of factors affecting Social disorder of divorce in Iran (Persian)]. Journal of Disciplinary Knowledge 2007; 9: 180-198.

MarkmanHJ, Renick MJ, Floyd FJ, Stanley SM, Clements M. Preventing marital distress throughcommunication and conflict management training: A 4- and 5-year follow-up. J Consult ClinPsychcol 1993; 61: 70-77.

Voydanoff P. Linkage between the work- family interface and work, family and individual outcomes. J Fam Issues 2002; 23: 138-164.

Compas BE, Conner-Smith JK, SaltzmanH, ThomsenAH, Wadsworth ME. Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psycho Bull 2001; 127: 87-127.

Mojaradkahani AH, GhanbariHashemabadi BA. [The efficacy of group psycho educational interventions on family performance of patients with mood disorders (Persian)]. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy 2012; 1: 399-412.

Samani S. Family types in the family process and content model. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2010; 5: 727-732.

Samani S,Sadeghzadeh M. Family types in the family process and content model. Psychol Rep 2010; 106: 539-547.

Terry DJ. Determinants of coping: The role of stable and situational factors. J PersSocPsychol 1994; 66: 895-910.

O'Leary A. Self-efficacy and health: Behavioral and stress-physiological mediation. Cognitive Therapy and Research 1992; 16: 229-245.

Yin RK. Qualitative research from start to finish. New York, NY:Guilford Guilford Publications; 2011.

Kim YP, Joh JY, Shin IS. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study. Asia Pac J Public Health 2015; 27: NP2702-11.

Al-KrenawiA. A study of psychological symptoms, family function, marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women: The Palestinian case. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2012; 58: 79-86.

Shur FenGau S, Chou MC, Chiang HL, Lee JC, Wong CC, Chou WJ, et al. Parental adjustment, marital relationship, and family function in families of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2012; 6: 263-270.

Yang S, Hong JA. Factors influencing family-function in families of pathological gamblers. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2015; 24: 196-206.

Zhang D, Chen L, Yin D, Miao J, Sun Y. Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2014; 43: 581-585.

Zanganeh B, Kaboudi M, Ashtarian H, Kaboudi B. The comparison of family function based on the McMaster model in fertile and infertile women. J Med Life 2015; 8: 196-202.

Lax Pericall MT, Taylor E. Family function and its relationship to injury severity and psychiatric outcome in children with acquired brain injury: a systematized review. Dev Med Child Neurol 2014; 56: 19-30.

Yoosefi N, GhaderMarzi H, Nazari poor M. [The prediction of family functioning based on spirituality (Persian)]. TebvaTazkiyeh 2014; 22: 59-66.

Hsieh HF, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.Qual Health Res 2005; 15: 277-1288.

Mayring P. Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 2000; 1. http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs

Hickey G, Kipping C. Issues in research. A multi- stage approach to the coding of data form openended questions. Nurse Res 1996; 4: 81-91.

Gholizadeh H, Bayrami M, Farnam A, Imani M, Pirzade J. [A comparison of family functioning in obsessive compulsive disorder patients with healthy subjects (Persian)]. J UrmiaUniv Med 2010; 21: 354-360.

Sayar S, Eghlima M. [A comparison of family functionality in addicted and non-addicted married men (Persian)]. J ParamedSciRehabil 2013; 2: 35-41.

Graneheim UH, LundmanB. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today 2004; 24: 105-112.

Milne J, Oberle K. Enhancing rigor in qualitative description: a case study. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2005; 32: 413–420.

Hardy MA, Bryman A. Handbook of data analysis. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2009.

Morgan DL. Qualitative content analysis: A guide to paths not taken. Qual Health Res 1993; 3: 112–121.

Morse JM, Field PA. Qualitative research methods for health professionals. London: Sage Publications, Inc; 1995.

Bell AC, D Zurilla TJ. Problem-solving therapy for depression: A meta-analysis. ClinPsychol Rev 2009; 29: 348-353.

Epstein N B, Baldwin LM, Bishop DS. The MacMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family therapy 1983; 9:171-180.

Bandura A, Pastorelli C, Barbaranelli C, Caprara GV. Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. J PersSocPsychol 1999; 76: 258-269.

Kavanagh D. Self-efficacy and depression. In: Schwarzer R (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action. Washington, DC: Hemisphere; 1992.

Ozer EM, Bandura A. Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: A self-efficacy analysis. J PersSocPsychol 1990; 58: 472-486.

Kaslow F, Robinson JA. Long-term satisfying marriages: perceptions of contributing factors. The American Journal of family thearapy 1996; 24:153-170.

Ghodsi AM, Samadi Z. [Sociological analysis of learned exhaustion stage in medical institutions (Persian)]. Quarterly Journal of the Sociology of Social Institution 2014; 1: 7-31.

Vakili M, Rahai Z, Mohammadi S. [Assessing causes of marital conflict as a threat against marital mental health in view of the of newly-wed couples in Yazd (Persian)]. Journal of Toloo-e-behdasht 2007; 6: 52-60.

Amato PA, Previti D. People’s reasons for divorcing: Gender, social class, the life course, and adjustment. Journal of Family Issues 2003; 24: 602-626.

Davoodi Z, Etemadi O, Bahrami F, Shahsiah M. [The effect of brief solution - focused couple therapy approach on couples’ marital adjustment in men and women prone to divorce in 2010-2011 in Isfahan (Persian)]. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health 2012; 14: 190-199.

Heid AR, Zarit SH, Fingerman KL. My parent is so stubborn!”—perceptions of aging parents’ persistence, insistence, and resistance. J Gerontol B PsycholSciSocSci 2016; 71: 602-612.

Gottman JM, KrokoffLJ. The relationship between marital interaction and marital satisfaction: A longitudinal view. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1989; 57: 47-52.

Vaillant GE. Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1994; 103: 44-50.

Hoise L. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic. Cad SaúdePública 1994; 10: 135-145.

BashiriKhatibi B, Fakhraee S. [Social and cultural factors influencing family violence in Tabriz (Persian)]. Journal of Applied Sociology 2013; 24: 221-233.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.