Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 Dr. Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Open Journal Systems Relationship between demographic factors and violence during pregnancy in Iran: A Systematic review and meta-analysis study 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 tahereh bahmani Koroush Sayehmiri salman Daliri Arezoo Karimi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Domestic violence is the most common form of violence against women is one of the major health problems in the world. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between demographic factors with domestic violence of during pregnancy through systematic review and meta-analysis.</p><p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis study in Iran. Accordingly, all the articles published in this regard from 2001 up to 2015 were extracted independently by two trained investigators from databases domestic and foreign databases Science Medlib, SID, Web of Science, Pub Med, Science Direct, Iran doc, Medline, Scopus, Magiran, and Google Scholar with key words and their compounds. The results of studies were analyzed using random effects model and fixed in meta-analysis, and Cochran and I<sup>2</sup> tests were analyzed by Spss16.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> 21 articles with the sample size of 15020 people were included in the study. The findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis showed that unwanted pregnancy OR<sup>1</sup>:2.51(95%CI:1.14-5.57), Low level of education OR:1.90(95%CI:1.40-2.59), unemployment OR:1.79(95%CI:1.06-3.00) and man's smoking OR:2.53(95%CI:1.36-4.69)  are important factors in increase domestic violence during pregnancy. Having three children and fewer OR:0.30(95%CI:0.16-0.56) and enough and regular visiting to get adequate prenatal care OR:0.25(95%CI:0.12-0.54) are deterrent for violence in during pregnancy.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on our findings unwanted pregnancy, level of education, unemployment, prenatal care, smoking and the number of children are in connection with violence during their pregnancy. As a result, attention to these factors and controlling them they can reduce violence during pregnancy and it adverse consequences.</p> 2018-08-19T12:59:07+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methylphenidate-induced Psychotic Symptoms in 65-Year-Old Female with ADHD 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 Elliyeh Ghadrdan maryam mousavi Padideh Ghaeli <p>Methylphenidate, a stimulant, is prescribed commonly in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. Methylphenidate is generally considered a safe medication, however, some rare adverse effects, such as psychotic symptoms, may occur with its therapeutic or high doses. Additionally, this medication has a potential of abuse, especially among teenagers. There are several published cases regarding methylphenidate-induced psychosis in young adults. However, psychosis due to methylphenidate has been rarely reported in the elderly. This case presents psychotic manifestations due to methylphenidate in a 65-year-old female who was taking this medication for ADHD. She consumed 3 to 4 methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets per day for several months and thought that they were sleeping pills. Antipsychotic medication was initiated and methylphenidate was discontinued which resulted in improvement of her psychosis. Alternative diagnoses, including bipolar mood disorder with psychotic feature or mood disorder due to general medical condition, were ruled out because her psychotic symptoms appeared after taking several methylphenidate tablets and disappeared after discontinuation of this medication.</p> 2018-08-19T12:59:07+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preliminary Normative Data of Persian Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency Test 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 Ensiyeh Ghasemian-Shirvan Saba Molavi Shirazi Masoume Aminikhoo Mostafa Zarean Hamed Ekhtiari <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Verbal fluency tests (VFTs) are widely used in clinical practice and research to assess executive functions and are highly sensitive to frontal lobe lesions. However, using VFTs in different cultures and languages needs further considerations. The aim of this study was to provide a Persian (Farsi) version of verbal fluency with preliminary normative data.</p><p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> In the first phase, 50 healthy native Persian-speaking individuals completed 1-minute VFT for all 32 letters in Persian to find letters with highest frequency. In the second phase, 100 healthy participants (50 females) were recruited into 5 age groups that were matched by gender and education. Participants were instructed to do 1-minute VFT for the 3 selected letters (phonemic VFT) and 3 categories (animal, supermarket, and fruit) (semantic VFT). For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was performed.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>In the first phase, 3 letters (Pe standing for /P/, Meem for /M/ and Kaaf for /K/) had the highest frequency in word production (12 in average) and had been chosen for Persian phonemic VFT. Participants were assessed with the 3 selected letters (/P/: 12.28±3.607, /M/: 12.54±3.907, and /K/: 12.48±3.708) and 3 semantic categories (animal: 21.67±5.119, supermarket: 21.19±4.907, and fruit: 19.58±4.439) with 1-minute time limitation for each test. The results showed that education was significantly (p&lt;0.01) associated with the performance in the phonemic but not semantic scores, while age was not correlated with either of the tests. No significant effect of gender was observed.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on our results, we recommend Persian letters Pe, Meem, and Kaff that have the highest frequency in word production among others to be used for neuropsychological assessments and future studies in the Persian language. This is the same logic behind selecting F, A, and S in the English version. Although the norms obtained in this study are preliminary, these results can be useful in clinical evaluation with considerations about age and educational levels. Moreover, the findings of this study can be used as an initial step for more comprehensive normative studies.</p><p><strong> </strong></p> 2018-08-19T12:59:06+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity among Mothers Referring to Community Health Centers 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 Neda Ezzeddin Hassan Jahanihashemi Roza Zavoshy Mostafa Noroozi <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition which may compromise both maternal and neonatal health. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of PPD and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric, and household food security status.</p><p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> This cross sectional study was conducted in community health centers in west of Tehran. A total of 325 women were selected by stratified sampling method from community health centers. A sociodemographic questionnaire, USDA 18-item questionnaire, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and analytic analyses, such as chi-squared test and logistic regression in SPSS 22.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of PPD and food insecurity among the studied population was 35.4% and 34.2%, respectively. The results of this study revealed a significant association among PPD  and food insecurity (OR = 6.690, CI  =  3.118-14.353, p&lt;0.001), the levels of economic satisfaction (OR  =  3.419, CI  =  1.241-9.420, P  =  0.017), pregnancy loss (OR  =  1.899, CI  =  1.006-3.582, p  =  0.048), and pregnancy complications (OR  =  1.853, CI  =  1.083-3.170, P  =  0.024).</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the results of this study, household food insecurity may predispose mothers to PPD. Moreover, it was observed that mothers with poor economic satisfaction were more likely to be depressed. Histories of pregnancy loss and pregnancy complications were other risk factors for PPD.</p> 2018-08-19T12:59:05+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Attitudes of nurses and patients in psychiatric hospitals in Shiraz towards the rights of patients with mental disorder 2018-08-19T13:11:01+0430 Sedigheh Ebrahimi <p align="left"><strong>Abstract:</strong></p><p align="left"><strong>Introduction</strong>: In recent years, protection of the rights of hospitalized psychiatric patients became a key issue in the delivery of care to these people. Despite its importance, little research has been conducted on this topic and little information exists that focus on assessing and comparing the attitudes of psychiatric patients and nurses.</p><p align="left">The current study aimed to determine the differences  in attitude of  nurses with those of patients at the Ibn Sina hospital in the Shiraz towards multiple facets of psychiatric patients’ rights .</p><p align="left"><strong>Method:</strong> This cross-sectional descriptive study was done among nurses and hospitalized patients in a psychiatric hospital to determine their attitudes toward patient rights . data was collected by two  questionnaire that were designed for  nurses(22 questions) and patients, (29 questions) . Data was analyzed by SPSS19 software using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Pearson correlation tests.</p><p align="left"><strong>Results</strong>: In this study was conducted on 60 nurses and 100 patients admitted to various wards of Ibn Sina hospital in the Shiraz city. More than half of nurses (78.3%) were agreed with the necessity of informing the mentally ill patients about their rights at the time of admission in medical center. The result showed that majority of both groups agreed with active participation of the patients in decision-making related to their health care. According to this survey, more than half of patients deemed the rules of hospitalization of mentally ill patients such as: possibility of refusal/withdrawal of the proposed treatment or leaving the hospital contrary to the medical advice, while only 38.3% of nurses were agreed to those rules in some clauses . (P value = 0.000).</p><p align="left"><strong>Discussion:</strong> <strong></strong></p><p align="left">In order to protect  rights of mentally ill patients, their family and society, we should identify weaknesses and shortcomings of the basic right of this group and give suggestions for its improvement. considering a bill of rights which cover the needs of mentally ill patients, could be a turning point for improvement of the quality of care as well as increasing patients' satisfaction.</p> 2018-08-19T12:59:04+0430 ##submission.copyrightStatement##