Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2018-12-25T09:57:00+0330 Dr. Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Open Journal Systems High Frequency of Bipolar Disorder Comorbidity in Medical Inpatients 2018-12-18T11:35:55+0330 Atefeh Ghanbari Jolfaei Samane Ataie Raoofeh Ghayoomi Amir Shabani <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Bipolar disorder is a severe, disabling, and recurring disorder.</p> <p>Some studies have shown that the frequency of bipolar disorder in patients with medical diseases is higher than healthy controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of bipolar disorders in medically ill patients hospitalized in Iranian general hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> In this cross sectional study, 697 inpatients (342 men, 49.1%) from different wards of 3 general hospitals, with the mean age of 39.3+-10, were enrolled in the study using nonprobability sampling. Demographic questionnaire, Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) were used. Inclusion criteria were as follow: informed consent, age 18-65 years, ability to speak Persian, and having at least middle school education. <strong>Results: </strong>The frequency of bipolar disorder was 12.1% and 20.8% based on BSDS and MDQ, respectively. The results of both tests were positive in 7.9% of hospitalized patients.</p> <p>The frequency of bipolar mood disorder was significantly higher in single patients and in those with comorbidity of alcohol and substance use disorders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Considering the high frequency of bipolar mood disorders in hospitalized medically ill patients and its probable effects on compliance and prognosis, early screening, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar mood disorders is important in these patients.</p> 2018-12-18T11:35:55+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Family and Patient Psychoeducation for Severe Mental Disorder in Iran: A Review 2018-12-17T10:11:21+0330 Yasaman Mottaghipour Maryam Tabatabaee <p><strong>Objective:</strong> There are evidence-based practices in the field of family and patient psychoeducation for patients suffering from severe mental disorders. However, given the variation in resources and cultural contexts, implementation of these services, especially in low- and middle-income countries is faced with challenges.</p> <p>This study aimed to review articles on family and patient psychoeducation of severe mental disorders in Iran and to find the characteristics of the main components necessary for the implementation of such practices in clinical settings.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> All published studies on family and patient psychoeducation for severe mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder) conducted in Iran were searched up to May 2018; and key features and findings of each study were extracted and presented.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Forty-eight studies were included in this review, of which 27 were randomized controlled trials, and 20 were quasi-experimental. One study was an implementation and service development report. The main findings of these studies were a significant decrease in relapse rate and/or rehospitalization rate and a significant decrease of burden and distress of families.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite a wide diversity in approaches, this review showed that different psychosocial interventions in which psychoeducation is one of their core and main components have promising results, demonstrating the significance of this intervention in Iranian mental health research. In our opinion, based on evidence, even with limited resources, it is no longer acceptable to deprioritize some forms of psychoeducation for patients and their families in clinical settings.</p> 2018-12-17T10:10:13+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Catatonia Development in a Patient with Bipolar Disorder Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Case Report 2018-12-17T10:11:21+0330 Alireza Ghayoumi Azadeh Mashayekhi <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major treatment of catatonia; and catatonia development during electroconvulsive therapy is a highly surprising phenomenon. We present a patient with bipolar disorder who developed catatonia during ECT.</p> <p><strong>Case Reports</strong><strong>:</strong> A 21-year-old woman, with a known case of bipolar disorder in manic phase without psychotic feature, history of long acting antipsychotic use, and severe B12 deficiency, was treated with ECT. Full catatonia syndrome developed after the fifth session of ECT.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In rare cases, catatonia can develop during ECT course in the presence of some precipitating factors. Thus, these precipitating factors should be eliminated as much as possible before the start of ECT course to prevent catatonia development.</p> 2018-12-17T10:08:37+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Current Status of Health and Social Services for Children with Autism in Iran: Parents’ Perspectives 2018-12-25T09:57:00+0330 Hadi Zarafshan Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Farid Abolhassani Seyed Abbas Motevalian Neda Sepasi Vandad Sharifi <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The present study is a part of a larger study that aimed at developing a comprehensive model of service delivery for individuals with autism in Iran based on the local needs and characteristics. In this study, the status of the services provided to those with autism in Iran was investigated based on the perspectives of parents of children with autism.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> A semi-structured interview was used to qualitatively investigate the status of the services with regards to autism in Iran based on the perspectives of parents of children with autism.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study revealed several barriers, including shortness of eligible professionals, difficulty in access to care for families, high costs, and lack of formal and informal supports, in providing services to those with autism in Iran. Early detection and diagnosis are of prime importance. We also need to train our specialists to diagnose autism based on the standard protocols and tests.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In sum, we need a comprehensive program that involves different sectors in charge of health and education in Iran.</p> 2018-12-17T09:52:02+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child Victims of Domestic Violence 2018-12-17T10:11:23+0330 Nasrin Jaberghaderi Mansour Rezaei Mitra Kolivand Azita Shokoohi <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was conducted to examine and compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in child victims of domestic violence (child physical abuse and/or witnessing parents’ conflicts).</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 139 girls and boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into CBT (n = 40), EMDR (n = 40), or control groups (n=59). All children received up to 12 individual treatment sessions over 4–12 weeks. Blind assessment was done before and 2 weeks after the treatment and on a variety of teacher-parent-rated and self-report measures of posttraumatic symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behavior problems.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>CBT and EMDR were effective in ameliorating psychological sequelae of victims of domestic violence on the measured variables (p =.001). Comparison of the treatment and control groups suggested moderate to high practical significance in treatment groups vs controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both CBT and EMDR can help children to greatly recover from the outcomes of domestic violence in comparison with control group. Moreover, structured trauma treatments are strongly recommended and can be used for children.</p> 2018-12-17T09:29:09+0330 ##submission.copyrightStatement##