Iranian Journal of Psychiatry Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 1735-4587 Assessing the Functions of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Factor Analysis of Functional Assessment of Self- Mutilation among Adolescents <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess the factor analysis of Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) among Iranian adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury.<br><strong>Method</strong>: In this study, 646 high school students, with the mean age of 16.55 ± 0.7, were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method; they completed FASM and the demographic form. Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ2), independent sample t test, MANOVA, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA).<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of the participants, 178 reported at least 1 episode of NSSI during the previous year. The mean age of the participants when they first harmed themselves was 14.64 (±1.71). Most of them reported to engage in NSSI impulsively (39.32%) and experienced little (31.5%) or moderate physical pain (31.5%) There were no significant differences between males and females in severity of NSSI, frequency of NSSI, thinking about NSSI prior to engaging in the act, and age of onset. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the 4-factor model of NSSI functions suggested by Nock and Prinstine [Χ2/df = 1.84; RMSEA = 0.07; GFI = 0.82; AGFI = 0.77]. The most frequent function for engaging in NSSI was Automatic Negative Reinforcement .<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Findings of this study supported the structural validity of the FASM; thus, this tool can be useful in treatment and research contexts as a measure of NSSI functions. Moreover, this study found that adolescents engage in non-suicidal self-injury because of 4 distinct reinforcement processes. The study findings have important implications for the assessment and treatment of NSSI.</p> Maryam Izadi Hamid Yaghubi Pavaneh Mohammadkhani Hamidreza Hassanabadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-13 2019-08-13 14 3 184 191 A Case Series of Severe Hyperammonemia Encephalopathy Related to Valproate: Can Antipsychotics Increase the Risk? <p>Valproate-induced hyperammonemia is a common side effect of valproate, which may occur either without any symptoms or may rarely cause symptoms of encephalopathy. Different risk factors have been defined for this side effect, including some nutritional deficiencies and polypharmacy (eg, other anticonvulsants). Three cases with psychiatric disorder who showed symptoms of severe hyperammonemia encephalopathy and had taken valproate with antipsychotics, especially risperidone, are presented here. In all cases, the symptoms were improved by discontinuation of valproate. Administration of antipsychotic may be considered as a risk factor for hyperammonemic encephalopathy related to valproate, specifically in some prone populations.</p> Effat Davoudi-Monfared Mojan Radmehr Padideh Ghaeli Maryam Mousavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-28 2019-07-28 14 3 248 252 10.18502/ijps.v14i3.1342 Evaluating the Diagnostic Agreement between Telepsychiatry Assessment and Face-to-Face Visit: A Preliminary Study <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Despite accumulated evidence that demonstrates clinical outcome of telepsychiatry is comparable with conventional method; little research has been done on telepsychiatry in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic agreement between telepsychiatry assessment and face-to-face assessment. Moreover, patient and doctor satisfaction was assessed by self-report questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> This study was conducted in an inpatient department of a university-affiliated hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 40 inpatients aged over 18 years who were selected from October 2016 to February 2017. All patients were visited once by face-to-face conventional method and once by interactive video teleconsultation by 2 psychiatric consultants.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Results of this study revealed that the diagnostic agreement between the 2 interviewers was 75%. Moreover, about 85% of the patients preferred telepsychiatry for follow-up visits. Also, more than 82% of the patients would recommend telepsychiatry to others although 95% of them perceived contact via telepsychiatry as uncomfortable to some extent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Telepsychiatry service can be used for psychiatric evaluation in Iran, and it has a desirable effect on patient and doctor satisfaction. The results of this study showed the capacity of moving towards using telepsychiatry.</p> Shahrzad Mazhari Alireza Ghaffari Nejad Omid Mofakhami Farzaneh Raaii Kambiz BahhaaddinBeigy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-28 2019-07-28 14 3 236 241 10.18502/ijps.v14i3.1332 Recognition of Famous and Unfamiliar Faces among Patients Suffering from Amnesia Mild Cognitive Impairment (AMCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Memory assessment for the early diagnosis of cortical dementia is a complicated process which depends on important factors such as facial recognition and naming. These factors could be considered to carry a predictive power to detect neurodegenerative disorders. The present study aimed to study and compare naming or recognizing famous faces with the recognition of newly learned faces among patients with Amnesia Mild Cognitive Impairment (AMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> To collect data, 60 AMCI patients, 62 patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, and 63 cognitively healthy individuals were assessed using Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test (WMS-III faces) and Famous Faces test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that the patients suffering from AMCI and Alzheimer’s disease scored significantly worse than the control group on naming (p &lt; 0.001), recognition (p &lt; 0.001) section of the Famous Faces test, and immediate or delayed recognition on the WMS-III Faces test (p &lt; 0.001). Also, the obtained results showed that the patients groups received lower scores on WMS-III Faces compared to the Famous Faces test.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study suggested that the unfamiliar and Famous Faces tests allow the quantification of patients’ face recognition and name recall abilities which, in turn, makes it possible to make more accurate predictions about cases of dementia. These tests can be used for clinical and research purposes to screen those who may be prone to dementia and need further neuropsychological assessment.</p> Fahimeh Rahmani Majdedin Fathi Maryam Kazemi Elham Bahadori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-28 2019-07-28 14 3 227 235 10.18502/ijps.v14i3.1330 Sensory and Affective Dimensions of Pain and Anxiety Like Behaviors Are Altered in an Animal Model of Pain Empathy <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Pain is a unique and subjective experience that has a prominent function in animals’ survival. Observation of pain in others leads to alterations in pain sensation and affection, termed “Empathy for pain”. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of empathy on sensory and affective dimensions of pain and its effect on anxiety-like behaviors.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>:</strong> In this study, male Wistar rats were used. Two cage mates were selected, one of which underwent administration of a noxious stimuli for 10 days and the other observed the conspecific in pain. Hot plate, tail flick, and conditioned place aversion were used to evaluate sensory and affective dimensions of pain, respectively. Anxiety-like behavior was assayed using elevated plus maze paradigm and time spent in open and close arms and number of entrance into each arm was recorded as the anxiety indicator within a 5-minute framework.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Rats observing the cage mate in pain had a lower threshold to noxious stimuli in comparison to controls. They also had an increased aversion from painful stimuli, demonstrating heightened affective response to pain. Anxiety-like behavior was also enhanced in the observers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results of this study demonstrate that both sensory and affective dimensions of pain are altered following observation of pain in a conspecific. Further studies evaluating the underlying mechanisms are encouraged to elucidate the role of different neurotransmitters in this phenomenon.</p> Masoud Nazeri Goli Chamani Fatemeh Abareghi Fatemeh Mohammadi Mohammad-Hosseyn Talebizadeh Mohammad-Reza Zarei Mohammad Shabani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-28 2019-07-28 14 3 221 226 10.18502/ijps.v14i3.1329