Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2017. 12(2):93-99.

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Spiritual Well-Being and Emotional Intelligence of the Elderly Mourners
Abas Solaimani Khashab, Hosain Ghamari Kivi, Davod Fathi

Abstract


Objective: Grief is one of the most painful experiences of the humans after linking emotions. In the literature of trauma, grief and mourning can be seen on many topics. Intervention and treatment of grief seems necessary as the period of mourning is prolonged. Thus, this study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence in the elderly bereavement.

Method: This was an experimental study with pre-and posttest design, and control group. The population of this study was the elderly mourners in city of Ardabil in 15-2014. After conducting clinical interviews and diagnostic tests using the sampling method, 30 elderly mourners selected. Spiritual Well-Being questionnaire and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire were used for data collection. The questionnaire and pretest-posttest were used in this study. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance.

Results: The results of the data analysis revealed that cognitive behavioral therapy increased spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the mourners was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P<0.01). However, the means of Spiritual Well-Being and Emotional Intelligence at pretest was not significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Method of cognitive behavioral therapy helps confront the emotional drain and grief acceptance, increasing the spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the elderly bereavement.‏


Keywords


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Elderly Bereavement; Emotional Intelligence; Spiritual Well-Being

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bailley SE, Dunham K, Kral MJ. Factor structure of the grieve experience questionnaire (GEQ). Death studies 2000; 24: 721 – 738.

Ahmed KH. [principles and techniques of crisis intervention (Persian)]. Publishing Higher Education Institute of Applied Science and Red Crescent. Iran Tehran; 2009.

HosseiniNezhad S, Ebrahimi A, GhamariKivi H, Fathi D, Moosavi S. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Bereaved UniversityStudents' Hope: International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences 2016; 5: 344-348.

Craven RF, Hirnle CJ. Fundamental of nursing: human health and function. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003.

WHO. International Statiscial Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems ICD-10. 2nd Edition. Geneva, Switzerland; 2005.

Asaroodi A. Golafhshan A, Akaberi S. [The relationship spiritual well-being and quality of life of nurses (Persian)]. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences 2011; 3: 79-88.

Hawks SR, Hull ML, Thalman RL, Richins PM, Review of spiritual health: definition, role, and intervention strategies in health promotion, Am J Health Promot 1995; 9: 371 -378.

Livneh H, Lott Sh, Antonak R. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability: a cluster analytic approach. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2004; 9: 411-430.

Hamid N, Keikhosravani M, Babamiri M, Dehghani M. [Evaluation of the relationship of mental health and spiritual intelligence with resiliency of students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Persian)]. Journal of Jentashapir 2012; 3: 331-338.

Mayer JD, Salovey P. “What is emotional intelligence?” In Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence.New York: Basic Book; 1997.

Goleman.D. Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books; 1995.

Roushani KH, Nadri F. [study examined the relationship between spiritual intelligence and social intelligence and death anxiety in older adults (Persian)]. Quarterly subjects were female and culture 2010; 2: 55-67.

Judith B. Questions and Answers about Cognitive Therapy, Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research 2008: 75-134.

Scott M, Astartyng A, Dryden V. [Cognitive-behavioral counseling, translated by Mohammad Khodayarifard (the date of the original work, 1995) (Persian)]. Tehran: Tehran University Press; 2007.

Faramarzi S, Askari K, Taghavi F. [Evaluation of effectiveness of cognitive behavioral adaptation of students with abnormal grief (Persian)]. Journal of Behavioral Sciences Research 2012; 10: 373-382.

Revheim N, Greenberg WM. Spirituality Matters: Creating a time and Place for Hope, Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2007; 30: 307-310.

Agha Ali F, Zandipoor T, Ahmadi M. [The effect of cognitive behavioral counseling based on religious thoughts on spirituality and mental health of MS patients in Qom (Persian)]. Ravanshenasi-va- Din 2011; 4: 37-54.

Elmer L, MacDonald D, Friedman H. Transpersonal psychology, physical health, and mental health: Theory, research and practice. Humanistic Psychologist 2003: 31: 159-181

Fathi D, Hoseinzadeh A, Drakhshan M, Alizadeh M. The Impact of Group Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) on Changing of staff’s emotional intelligence in Tehran Municipality. International Journal of Research in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management 2014: 2: 32-40.

Tarkhān M. Evaluation of group cognitive therapy on avoidant coping style and emotional intelligence of employees with depressive tendencies Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting. Master's thesis. Payam Noor university of Tehran.2010 [Persian].

Smaili M, Ahadi H, Delavar, A, SHafi Abadi A. [The impact of emotional intelligence on mental health (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 2007; 3: 158-165.

Ahmadi Azghand A, Ferasat Memar F, Taghavi H, Abolhasani A.[The validity and reliability of Emotional Intelligence streak (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychology 2006; 3: 157-168.

Yarmohammadian A. Kamali F. [The relationship between emotional intelligence and self-actualization junior high school students (Persian)]. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Shiraz 2007; 26: 211-226.

Delavarpoor M, Sultan M, Hossainchari M. [Forecast resilience or return to substance abuse based on emotional intelligence and religious confrontation (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology 2008; 4: 307-315.

Yousefi F, Safari E. [Studying the relationship between emotional intelligence and quality of life dimensions (Persian)]. Psychological Studies 2009: 5: 107- 128.

Sabri M, Alborzi M, Bahrami D. [The relationship patterns of family communication, emotional intelligence and emotional creativity among high school students (Persian)]. New Thoughts on Education Alzahra 2013; 9: 35-63.

Koszycki D, Raab K, Aldosary F, Bradwejn J. A multifaith spiritually based intervention for generalized anxiety disorder: a pilorandomized trial. J Clin Psychol 2010; 66: 430-441.

Barrera TL, Zeno D, Bush AL, Barber CR, Stanley MA. Integrating religion and spirituality into treatment for late-life anxiety: three case studies. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2012; 19: 346-358.

Fernsler JI, Klemm P, Miller MA. Spiritual well-being and demands of illness in people with colorectal cancer. Cancer Nurs 1999; 22: 134-40.

Abasi M, Azizi F, AHamsGHoahki E, Nasri Rad M, Akbari Laleh,M. [Conceptual and operational definition of spiritual health: a methodological study (Persian)]. Journal of Medical Ethics 2012: 20:11-44.

Cramer D, Cupshik G. Effect of rationaland irrational statements on intensity andunappropriateness of emotional distress and irrational lbeliefs in psychotherapy patients. Br J Clin Psychol 1993; 32(Pt 3): 319-325.

Lewinson, PM, gotlip E. H.Behavioral theory and depression. In E. Bacham &W. R.leber Eds, Handbook of depression. New York: Guilford Press; 1995.

Moller AT, Rabe HM, Nortje C. Dysfunctional Beliefs and marital conflict in Distressed and no distressed married Individual. Journal of Rational Emotive&Cognitive Behavior therapy 2001; 19: 256-270.

Wright G, Bescko M, Teize M. [Training cognitive-behavioral therapy (translation by habiballah Ghasem Zadeh and Hasan Hamid Pour) (Persian)]. Tehran: Argmand; 2013.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.