Iranian Journal of Psychiatry is a peer review scientific Journal published by Psychiatry & psychology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in collaboration with Iranian Psychiatric Association.
The aim of the Journal is to publish articles in English of high scientific quality related to those domains which are presently of interest to psychiatry including: 
Psychopathology, biological psychiatry, cross-cultural psychiatry, psychopharmacology, social & community psychiatry, epidemiology, child & adolescent psychiatry, psychotherapy, neuropsychiatry, psychology, spiritual therapy , as well as animal studies in psychiatry and psychology. 

The scope is to act as an international forum for dissemination of science in the above-mentioned fields. It accepts submissions presented as original articles, short communication, case report, review article (invited), and letter to editor. 

Articles in Press


Current Issue

Vol 18 No 1 (2023)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | views: 50 | pages: 1-10

    Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fear, anxiety, and depression have become global concerns among the wider public. This study aimed to examine the occurrence of fear, anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with COVID-19, to assess influencing factors that lead to the development of these mental health conditions and to examine any changes in the mental health patterns of the society since the initial study a year ago in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Method: An anonymous online survey based on Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Patients Health Questionnaires (PHQs) was conducted in the general population of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Results: From 1096 subjects, 81.3% were females, 33.8% had a high school degree, 56.4% were married, 53.4% were engaged in intellectual labor, 42.3% experienced fear, 72.9% had anxiety symptoms and 70.3% had depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and their mean age was 35.84 ± 10.86. Half (50.1%) of the subjects were COVID-19 positive and 63.8% had COVID-19 symptoms when responding to the questionnaire. Experiencing COVID-19 related fear (OR = 1.972) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR = 9.514) were associated with the development of mild to severe anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, which were in turn associated with the development of moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR = 10.203) and COVID-19 related fear (OR = 2.140), respectively, thus creating a potential circulus vicious. COVID-19 positive subjects (OR = 1.454) were also more likely to develop mild to severe anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of fear, anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms rose dramatically since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They were interconnected and were significantly associated with age, gender, marital status and COVID-19 status. Therefore, an urgent mental health intervention is needed for the prevention of mental health problems.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 57 | views: 114 | pages: 11-17

    Objective: The aim is to determine the relationship between academic procrastination, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in students of the Faculty of Health Sciences.

    Method: It was a non-experimental and cross-sectional study of correlational scope. The non-probabilistic convenience sample, made up of 578 participants between 16 and 30 years old (69% female), completed the Academic Procrastination Scale, the Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation Inventory (PANSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Frequencies and percentages were estimated at a descriptive level, the partial correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were utilized to examine the associations between academic procrastination and suicidal ideation.

    Results: Subjects with a higher score of academic procrastination and BDI-II reported higher scores for suicidal ideation than those with a lower score (P < 0.01). A positive significant relationship was found between total academic procrastination and its subscales and suicidal ideation (P < 0.01). This correlation remained significant after controlling for depression (P < 0.05). Moreover, multiple linear regression revealed that academic procrastination, its subscales and depressive symptoms could explain about 20% of the total suicidal ideation in university students (R2 = 0.198).

    Conclusion: Increased levels of academic procrastination increase suicidal ideation in college students during the pandemic. These results suggest the need to create interventions for the prevention of this problem in the fields of educational and public health.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 66 | views: 56 | pages: 18-25

    Objective: This study was designed to compare object relations and anger control between MS patients and normal individuals.

    Method: The present study was a cross-sectional case-control study with two groups: the case group (patients with MS) and the control group (normal controls without MS). 80 patients and 80 healthy individuals were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using a simple random sampling method. The research’s data collection tool was a three-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information, the Bell Object Relations and the Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2). The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 26 using descriptive and analytical statistics (stepwise regression).

    Results: The results showed that in terms of object relations, there was no significant difference between the two groups except in alienation of relations (P = 0.035). The results also showed that in general, there was no statistically significant difference between the anger index of the group of MS patients and the normal controls. However, 12.8% of MS patients were significantly different in state of anger, trait anger and anger control compared to normal individuals. This difference was especially higher in angry temperament (P = 0.025) and the anger expression-in (P = 0.04).

    Conclusion: Although patients with MS were not significantly different from healthy individuals in terms of intrapsychic and interpersonal functions in the context of object relations and anger management, it seems that more complex and multifaceted explanations lie in the results that need further research.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 16 | views: 47 | pages: 26-34

    Objective: To determine the status of self-care performance of pregnant women in the prevention of COVID-19 disease and its relationship with perceived stress during the epidemic period of this disease.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on 228 pregnant women who referred to the health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for prenatal care. They were selected by cluster sampling. Data collection tools included questionnaires about Demographic-Social Characteristics, the Self-Care Performance Questionnaire and Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale. Spearman correlation test was used to examine the correlation between self-care performance and perceived stress in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Also, multivariate linear regression was used, with control of demographic-social and obstetric characteristics as possible confounders.

    Results: The median (25-75 percentiles) self-care performance score of participants was 0.71 (0.65-0.76), from the achievable range of 20-80, and its mean (± SD) perceived stress score was 25.5 (± 5.6), from the achievable range of 0-56. The Spearman’s rank correlation test results showed a significant inverse correlation between perceived stress and self-care performance scores (r = -0.13; P = 0.041). According to multivariate linear regression test, the variables of self-care performance, education, spouse's education and number of family members were the predictors of perceived stress in pregnant women during the COVID-19 epidemic.

    Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, self-care performance of pregnant women in prevention of the COVID-19 disease was good and their stress was moderate. There was a significant inverse correlation between self-care performance and perceived stress that could indicate the high value and importance of the fetus for the mother and her strict adherence to health protocols to prevent COVID-19, which also leads to calming and reduced perceived stress.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 35 | pages: 35-44

    Objective: The addiction pattern of smartphone usage has increased concerns about potential complications. The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), a self-administered questionnaire, evaluates smartphone usage and dependency. The study’s purpose was to translate and culturally adapt the SAS short-version into the Persian language (SAS-SV-Pr), and evaluate its psychometric properties.

    Method: The SAS-SV translation used standardized procedures that involved double-forward and backward translations. A convenience sample, from three medical universities in the city of Teheran (n = 250 students), was recruited to complete the SAS-SV and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The content validity index (CVI) and the floor and ceiling effect were considered to evaluate content validity. To evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC2.1) were utilized respectively. Criterion validity was measured by calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficient for the total scores of SAS-SV-Pr and IAT (Pearson’s r correlation coefficient). Construct validity was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and ratified with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    Results: During translation and cultural adaptation, only minor wording changes were performed. The correlation between the SAS-SV-Pr and IAT was good (r = 0.57), which determined validity. There was high internal consistency (α = 0.88), split-half reliability (0.84), composite reliability (CR) (0.78) and test-retest reliability (ICC (2.1) = 0.89). Subsequent EFA demonstrated an ambiguous factor structure, being border-line between one- and two-factors, which explained 50.28% of total variance. The CFA confirmed that the two-factor solution was preferred. Our data did not show floor or ceiling effects.

    Conclusion: The Persian SAS-SV is a two-factor structure outcome measure to evaluate the dependency of smartphone users. It has demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for validity, reliability and factor structure, and is suitable for screening and research aims among Persian subjects.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 32 | views: 81 | pages: 45-54

    Objective: Mental health literacy is especially important during adolescence and youth, because the peak of the onset of mental disorders occurs in this period. The present study aimed to identify the effective systemic factors for improving Iranian adolescent mental health literacy from the Perspective of policymakers and experts.

    Method: This qualitative study was performed on 21 policymakers and health literacy/mental health experts since May 2020 to September 2020 in the workplace of the interviewees in Tehran. Purposive sampling (snowball method) was conducted based on experience, expertise, and the willingness to participate in an interview. All interviews were conducted with the presence of the interviewer at the interviewees' workplace in Tehran. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed via the conventional content analysis method.

    Results: Five themes were extracted as systemic factors for improving adolescent mental health literacy. Themes were “mental health literacy training”, “integration and coordination of stakeholder organizations”, “resources and facilities”, “continuous assessment” and “provision of information.”

    Conclusion: Before policy-making and planning to enhance adolescents' knowledge and awareness of mental health issues, it is necessary to attract policymakers’ attention to the macro level and identify direct and indirect strategies for the correct implementation of policies adopted in this field.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 17 | views: 26 | pages: 55-64

    Objective: Some children experience a significant deal of anxiety during the outbreak of COVID-19. Behavioral dimensions of the executive function appear to link to situational anxiety experience. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between self-related skills of executive functions and the level of anxiety in children (8-12-years-old) during the outbreak of COVID-19. Also, the secondary goal of this study is to predict the level of anxiety based on self-related skills of executive functions.

    Method: Parents of 300 children filled out the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS) and the COVID-19 anxiety scale. Data were analyzed using correlation and path analysis. A significance level of less than 0.05 was set for all tests. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software.

    Results: Results demonstrated that self-related skills of executive functions can predict 28% of COVID-19 anxiety. The subscales of self-management (P < 0.015, t = 5.56), self-regulation (P < 0.011, t = 6.37), self-restraint (P < 0.035, t = 4.29) and emotional self-organization (P < 0.042, P = 0.222) predicted coronavirus anxiety, but self-motivation (P < 0.05, P = 0.894) did not.

    Conclusion: Given that most subscales of executive function predict anxiety tied to critical situations such as the prevalence of the corona virus, it seems that greater attention should be allocated to the fostering and development of children's executive functions by teaching such skills at home by families.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 23 | views: 58 | pages: 65-71

    Objective: Childhood trauma is associated with many major short-term and lifelong consequences, such as deterioration of mental health, higher frequency of affective dysregulation, changes in consciousness and attention, personality disorders, etc. Therefore, this study aims to examine childhood trauma as a possible factor in the incidence of high risk behaviors in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD).

    Method: 120 individuals aged 12-18 years were selected based on purposive sampling and included in the research group (including 60 BPD adolescents and 60 non-BPD adolescents). After receiving ethical approval from official institutions, data was collected from the participants through demographic, childhood trauma, sexual addiction screening, eating attitudes, RAFFT, and suicidal behavior questionnaires. The collected data was analyzed using chi-square test, independent t-test, prevalence, odds ratio and correlation analyses using the SPSS V21.0 software.

    Results: All adolescents with BPD had experienced some forms of psychotraumatic events in childhood. The BPD group experienced more traumatic events than the non-BPD group (P < 0.05). After controlling for gender, age and years of education, all differences remained significant. Furthermore, statistically significant correlations were found between the scores of the emotional abuse and eating disorders scales in the group of girls with BPD (r = 0.788, P < 0.01). Moderate correlations were discovered between emotional abuse and suicidal behaviors in boys with BPD (r = 0.641, P < 0.01). Moreover, it was found that the most significant factors in the formation of addictive behaviors among adolescents with BPD were emotional abuse (r = 0.527) and emotional neglect (r = 0.513, P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: These findings reinforce the role of childhood trauma in the formation of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Successful detection of the earliest risk factors in the form of childhood trauma and its different forms can provide specific high risk behavior targets for early intervention.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 39 | views: 61 | pages: 72-82

    Objective: Non-constant current stimulation (NCCS) is a neuromodulatory method in which weak alternating, pulsed or random currents are delivered to the human head via scalp or earlobe electrodes. This approach is widely used in basic and translational studies. However, the underlying mechanisms of NCCS, which lead to biological and behavioral effects in the brain, remain largely unknown. In this review, we characterize NCCS techniques currently being utilized in neuroscience investigations, including transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), and cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES).

    Method: We unsystematically searched all relevant conference papers, journal articles, chapters, and textbooks on the biological mechanisms of NCCS techniques.

    Results: The fundamental idea of NCCS is that these low-level currents can interact with neuronal activity, modulate neuroplasticity and entrain cortical networks, thus, modifying cognition and behavior. We elucidate the mechanisms of action for each NCCS technique. These techniques may cause microscopic effects (such as affecting ion channels and neurotransmission systems) and macroscopic effects (such as affecting brain oscillations and functional connectivity) on the brain through different mechanisms of action (such as neural entrainment and stochastic resonance).

    Conclusion: The appeal of NCCS is its potential to modulate neuroplasticity noninvasively, along with the ease of use and good tolerability. Promising and interesting evidence has been reported for the capacity of NCCS to affect neural circuits and the behaviors under their control. Today, the challenge is to utilize this advancement optimally. Continuing methodological advancements with NCCS approaches will enable researchers to better understand how NCCS can be utilized for the modulation of nervous system activity and subsequent behaviors, with possible applications to non-clinical and clinical practices.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 65 | views: 190 | pages: 83-92

    Objective: Perfectaionism is a common personality trait that can affect various aspects of life, especially sexual relationships. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the existing evidence for the relationship between perfectionism and sexual function in studies conducted in Iran and the world.

    Method: A comprehensive search of databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ProQuest, PsychINFO, IranPsych, Irandoc, SID, and Google Scholar search engine was performed until December 2021 without a time limit. To find studies, we searched for the keywords perfectionism and sexual function in both Persian and English and combined these words with the AND operator. Studies that scored above 15 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria were included. Data analysis was performed qualitatively.

    Results: From the total of 878 articles found in databases, six articles met the inclusion criteria and had moderate quality. Reviewing studies corroborated that, notwithstanding the positive association between general/sexual perfectionism and sexual desire, specific dimensions such as socially prescribed perfectionism, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism, have the utmost unfavorable effect on female sexual function, which means that a higher level of perfectionism ultimately decreases the rate of sexual function in women. In addition, studies suggested that by increasing sexual anxiety and distress levels, perfectionism deteriorates sexual function.

    Conclusion: Perfectionism may cause a variety of problems regarding sexual function. However, to clarify the precise role of each dimension of perfectionism on different areas of sexual function, more research must be conducted in this area in various communities and on age groups other than females of reproductive ages.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 24 | views: 64 | pages: 93-96

    Objective: Quran memorization is familiar in Indonesia since early childhood (EC) education level and it is reported to have a positive effect on children’s emotional state. This study investigates how Quran memorization influences children’s emotions in a certain condition using Frontal Alpha Asymmetry (FAA) index.

    Method: The participants were 4 children aged 5-7 years, studying at Islamic-based schools in Surakarta. The tasks included three methods of Quran learning: visual, by watching videos; auditory, by listening to murattal recitations of the Quran; and memory, by repeating rote. The FAA index measurement used absolute power data obtained from Electroencephalography (EEG) by calculating the natural logarithm (ln [right alpha power] – ln [left alpha power]) from channel F8 and channel F7 respectively.

    Results: The majority of participants showed a positive FAA index in almost all tasks. The FAA index of various tasks were not significantly different from each other, with P = 0.592 based on Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. The post hoc Mann-Whitney U test does not find any intervention that stands out among the others.

    Conclusion: Learning the Quran with methods that involve visual, auditory, and memory activities results in positive, happy, motivated and excited feelings in children’s emotional state based on the FAA index assessment.

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