Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child Victims of Domestic Violence

  • Nasrin Jaberghaderi Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  • Mansour Rezaei Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
  • Mitra Kolivand School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences
  • Azita Shokoohi Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
Keywords: AF-CBT; CBT; Children; Domestic Violence; EMDR; Physical Abuse; Parents Conflict

Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to examine and compare the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in child victims of domestic violence (child physical abuse and/or witnessing parents’ conflicts). Method: A total of 139 girls and boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into CBT (n = 40), EMDR (n = 40), or control groups (n=59). All children received up to 12 individual treatment sessions over 4–12 weeks. Blind assessment was done before and 2 weeks after the treatment and on a variety of teacher-parent-rated and self-report measures of posttraumatic symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behavior problems. Results: CBT and EMDR were effective in ameliorating psychological sequelae of victims of domestic violence on the measured variables (p =.001). Comparison of the treatment and control groups suggested moderate to high practical significance in treatment groups vs controls. Conclusion: Both CBT and EMDR can help children to greatly recover from the outcomes of domestic violence in comparison with control group. Moreover, structured trauma treatments are strongly recommended and can be used for children.

References

Levesque RJR. Culture and family violence. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 2001.

Overbeek MM, de Schipper JC, Lamers-Winkelman F, Schuengel C. The effectiveness of a trauma-focused psycho-educational secondary prevention program for children exposed to inter parental violence: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012; 13: 173-186.

WHO and UNICEF. World report on child injury prevention. Geneva: Author; 2008.

Vinayak S, Jaberghaderi N. Domestic violence and its psychological consequences in among children in Kermanshah, Iran. International Journal of Current Research, 2012; 4 :310-314.

Holmes MR. Aggressive behavior of children exposed to intimate partner violence: An examination of maternal mental health, maternal warmth and child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect 2013; 12: 266-279. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.12.006.

Keyes KM, Eaton NR , Krueger RF, McLaughlin KA., Wall MM, Grant BF, & Hasin DS. Childhood maltreatment and the structure of common psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 2012; 200:107-15. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.09 3062.

Gutermann , Schreiber ,Matulis , Schwartzkopff , Deppe& Steil. Psychological treatments for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in children, adolescents, and young adults: a meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10567-016-0202-5.

Silverman WK, Oritz CD, Viswesvaran C, Burns BJ, Kolko DJ, Putnam FW, & Amaya-Jackson L. Evidence-based psycho- social treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child Adolescent Psychology 2008; 37: 156-83.

Gillies, D., Taylor, F., Gray, C., O'Brien, L., & D'Abrew, N. (2012). Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 12. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006726.pub2.

Cohen JA, Deblinger E, Mannarino AP, Steer RA. Multi –site randomized controlled trial for children with abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Child Abuse& Neglect,2004; 43: 393-402.

Simon M, & Herpertz-Dahlmann B. Psychotherapy for traumatized children and adolescents--cognitive-behavioral treatments. Z. Kinder Jugend psychiatr Psychother 2008; 36 : 345-52.

Diehle J, Opmeer BC, Boer F, Mannarino AP, Lindauer RJL. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: what works in children with posttraumatic stress symptoms? A randomized controlled trial. Europian Child &Adolescent Psychiatry 2015; 24: 227–236. DOI 10.1007/s00787-014-0572-5

Rodenburg R, Benjamin A, Roos C, Meijer AM, & Stams G. Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta – analysis. Clinical Psychology Review 2009; 10: 19-47.

Rutter MA. Children’s behavior questionnaire for completion by teachers: Preliminary findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry1967; 8: 1–11.

Yousefi F. The normalization of Rutter test (teacher form): Assessing the behavioral and emotional difficulties of Iranian students. The Journal of Society and Humanity Sciences of Shiraz University, 1998; 25 &26: 171–194.

Greenwald R. Parent &Child report of post traumatic symptoms (CROPS and PROPS). New York: Child Trauma Institute;1997.

Jaberghaderi N, Babaie A, Nori K, Zadmir N, Nori R, Kazemi M, & Moradi M. Frequency of life traumatic events and their psychological impacts on 7-12 years old urban students of Kermanshah city in 2006. Behbood 2008; 12: 199-212.

Kolko DJ, & Swenson CC. Assessing and treating physically abused children and their families: A cognitive behavioral approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2002.

Shapiro F. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd ed.). New York : Guilford Press;2001.

Greenwald R. EMDR within a phase model of trauma-informed treatment. New York: Routledge; 2007.

Jaberghaderi, N., Greenwald, R., Rubin, A., Oliaee-Zand, S., & Dolatabadi, S. (2004). A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually-abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 11, 358-368.

Bisson J, Andrew M. Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007; (3). doi:10.1002 /14651858. CD003818.pub2.

Wanders, F., Serra, M., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioral problems: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 180-189.

Mendes DD, Mello MF, Ventura, P., Passarela Cde, M., & Mari Jde, J. (2008). A systematic review on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatry Medicine, 38(3), 241-259.

de Roos, C., Greenwald, R., den Hollander-Gijsman, M., Noorthoorn, E., van Buuren, S., & de Jongh, A. (2011). A randomized comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in disaster-exposed children. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2(10), 340-354. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.5694

Nijdam, M. J., Gersons, B. P., Reitsma, J. B., de Jongh, A., & Olff, M.(2012). Brief eclectic psychotherapy vs. eyemovement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(3), 224-31.

Gelles, R. J., & Straus, M. A. (1988). Intimate violence. New York: Simon& Schuster.

Published
2018-12-17
How to Cite
1.
Jaberghaderi N, Rezaei M, Kolivand M, Shokoohi A. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Child Victims of Domestic Violence. ijps. 14(1):67-5.
Section
Original Article(s)