The Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Contamination Cognition Scale (CCS)
Objective: In recent years, many researchers have been searching for effective cognitive factors in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One of the scales designed to measure this characteristic is the contamination cognition scale (CCS) that evaluates 2 dimensions: overestimating the likelihood and severity of contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of CCS.
Method: The study population of this descriptive psychometric study included students of Shahed University. A total of 490 students were selected via cluster sampling and completed the CCS. CCS was translated and back- translated before given to the students. The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ) and the Padua Inventory (PI) were used. To assess the evidence for the validity of the scale, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS-22 and Amos-22 software.
Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that one-factor model did not have adequate fitness (RMSEA>.05). Therefore, to explore the factors of this scale, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used, and it revealed 3 factors (public equipment, food, and restroom) for each of the dimensions (likelihood and severity). CFA by AMOS-22 confirmed the three-factor model (GFI, CFI, and NFI>.95; RMSEA<.05). Furthermore, the results supported criteria validity of CCS with the PI total score (0.56- 0.47, p<0.001) and PI-contamination subscale (0.71-0.75, p<0.001). Also, the correlation between CCS and responsibility/threat subscale of the OBQ was significant (0.47- 0.49, p<0.001) The Cronbach’s alpha for likelihood dimensions total was 0.93 and it was 0.94 for severity dimension total. The composite reliability was 0.95 for the likelihood dimension and 0.96 for severity dimension of CCS. Also, the test-retest reliability after a 4-week interval was confirmed (likelihood: r = 0.78; severity: r = 0.81, p<.001).
Conclusion: The results indicated that one-factor model of CCS did not have adequate fitness, but three-factor model was confirmed in both dimensions (likelihood and severity). According to the results of the present study, the reliability and validity of the Persian version of CCS were acceptable.
Key words: Contamination Cognition Scale (CCS), Contamination, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Psychometric Properties, Student
Ruscio AM, Stein DJ, Chiu WT, Kessler RC. The epidemiology of obsessivecompulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Mol Psychiatry 2010; 15: 53-63.
Dadfar M, Bolhari J, Dadfar k, Bayanzadeh SA. [Prevalence of the obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology (Persian)] 2001; 7: 27-33.
Hyman BM, Pedrick C. The OCD Workbook: Your Guide to Breaking Free from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. New Harbinger Publications; 2010.
Albert U, Maina G, BogettoF, Chiarle A, Mataix-Cols D. Clinical predictors of health-related quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2010; 51: 193-200.
Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG). Cognitive assessment of obsessive–compulsive disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 1997; 35: 667–681.
Tolin DF, Woods CM, Abramowitz JS. Relationship Between Obsessive Beliefs and Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2003; 27: 657-669.
Deacon B, Olatunji BO. Specificity of disgust sensitivity in the prediction of behavioral avoidance in contamination fear. Behav Res Ther 2007; 45: 2110-2120.
Moretz MW, McKay D. Disgust sensitivity as a predictor of obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms and associated cognitions. J Anxiety Disord. 2008; 22: 707-715.
Wheaton MG, Abramowitz JS, Berman NC, Riemann BC, Hale LR. The relationship between obsessive beliefs and symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 2010; 48: 949-954.
Jones MK & Menzies RG. The cognitive mediation of obsessive compulsive handwashing. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35: 843-850.
Riskind JH, Williams NL, Joiner TE. The Looming Cognitive Style: A Cognitive Vulnerability for Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 2006; 25: 779-801.
Mitte K. Trait-disgust vs. fear of contamination and the judgmental bias of contamination concerns. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2008; 39: 577-586.
Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. Development and initial validation of the obsessive beliefs questionnaire and the interpretation of intrusions inventory. Behav Res Ther 2001; 39: 987-1006.
Deacon BJ, Maack DJ. Safety behaviors increase the fear of contamination. Behav Res Ther 2008; 47: 537–547.
İnözü M, Eremsoy C E. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Versions of Disgust Scale and Contamination Cognition Scale. Turkish Psychological Articles 2013; 16: 11-14.
Sarawgi S. Attention retraining treatment for contamination fear: A randomized control trial. Vanderbilt University; 2011.
Comfrey AL, Lee HB. A First Course in Factor Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates;1992.
Myers ND, Ahn S, Jin Y. Sample size and power estimates for a confirmatory factor analytic model in exercise and sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2011; 82: 412-423.
Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. Psychometric validation of the obsessive belief questionnaire and interpretation of intrusions inventory—Part 2: Factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43:1527-1542.
Shams G, Foroughi E, Moretz MW, Olatunji BO. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Disgust Scale-Revised: Examination of Specificity to Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychology 2013; 4: 526-534.
Sanavio E. Obsessions and compulsions: the Padua Inventory. Behav Res Ther 1988; 26: 169-177
Goodarzi MA, Firoozabadi A. Reliability and validity of the Padua Inventory in an Iranian population. Behav Res Ther 2005; 43: 43-54.
Raykov T. Estimation of composite reliability for congeneric measures. Applied Psychological Measurement 1997; 21: 173–184.
West SG, Taylor AB, Wu W, Hoyle RH. Model fit and model selection in structural equation modeling. Handbook of structural equation modeling 2012; 209-231.
Brown T. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. In: Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model t. New York, NY: KA Bollen & JS Long; 1993
Ukwuru M, Gabriel A. Cross contamination between food and money due to simultaneouss handling. Journal of Applied Science and The Environment 2012; 3: 42-48.