Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders in a National Survey of Iranian Children and Adolescents

  • Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Nastaran Ahmadi Yazd Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
  • Ali Khaleghi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Koorosh Kamali Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • Seyed Ali Mostafavi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehdi Rahgozar Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Ameneh Ahmadi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Zahra Hooshyari Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Seyyed Salman Alavi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Parviz Molavi Department of Psychiatry, Fatemi Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Science, Ardabil, Iran
  • Nasrin Sarraf Department of Child and Adolescent psychiatry, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Seyed Kaveh Hojjat Addiction and Behavioral Sciences Research center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
  • Soleiman Mohammadzadeh Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
  • Shahrokh Amiri Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Soroor Arman Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
  • Ahmad Ghanizadeh Department of Psychiatry, Hafez Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
  • Ahmad Ahmadipour Department of Psychiatry, Booshehr University of Medical Sciences, Khalij-E Fars Hospital, Booshehr, Iran.
  • Rahim Ostova Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.
  • Hedayat Nazari Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad, Iran.
  • Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
  • Atieh Golbon Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
  • Firoozeh Derakhshanpour Golestan Psychiatric Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Golestan, Iran.
  • Ali Delpisheh Department of Clinical Epidemiology Faculty of Medicine, Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
  • Forough Riahi Department of Psychiatry, Golestan Educational Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Siavash Talepasand Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
  • Azizollah Mojahed Health Promotion Research Center, Department of Clinical Psychology, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
  • Naser Hajian Motlagh Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
  • Aazam Sadat Heydari Yazdi Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
  • Mohammad Ahmadpanah Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
  • Reza Dastjerdi Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.
  • Houshang Amirian Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
  • Alireza Armani Department of Psychiatry, Zanjan University of Medical Science, Zanjan, Iran.
  • Parvin Safavi Clinical Research Development Unit, Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.
  • Maryam Kousha . Department of Pediatric Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
  • Anita Alaghmand Department of Psychiatric, Arak University of Medical Science, Arak, Iran.
  • Mahin Eslami Shahrbabaki Department of Psychiatry, Neuroscience Research Center and Institute of Neuropharmachology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
  • Arezou Kiani Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
  • Javad Mahmoudi Gharaei Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Alia Shakiba Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hadi Zarafshan Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Maryam Salmanian Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Eric Taylor Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
  • Eric Fombonne Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, United States of America
Keywords: Comorbidity, Child and Adolescent, Epidemiology, Psychiatric Disorders, Risk Factors

Abstract

Objective: Considering the impact of rapid sociocultural, political, and economical changes on societies and families, population-based surveys of mental disorders in different communities are needed to describe the magnitude of mental health problems and their disabling effects at the individual, familial, and societal levels.

Method: A population-based cross sectional survey (IRCAP project) of 30 532 children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years was conducted in all provinces of Iran using a multistage cluster sampling method. Data were collected by 250 clinical psychologists trained to use the validated Persian version of the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-PL (K-SADS-PL).

Results: In this national epidemiological survey, 6209 out of 30 532 (22.31%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. The anxiety disorders (14.13%) and behavioral disorders (8.3%) had the highest prevalence, while eating disorders (0.13%) and psychotic symptoms (0.26%) had the lowest. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly lower in girls (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.80-0.90), in those living in the rural area (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.73-0.87), in those aged 15-18 years (OR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.99), as well as that was significantly higher in those who had a parent suffering from mental disorders (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.63-2.36 for mother and OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.07-1.66 for father) or physical illness (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17-1.35 for mother and OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.10-1.28 for father).

Conclusion: About one fifth of Iranian children and adolescents suffer from at least one psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we should give a greater priority to promoting mental health and public health, provide more accessible services and trainings, and reduce barriers to accessing existing services.

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Published
2018-12-16
How to Cite
1.
Mohammadi M, Ahmadi N, Khaleghi A, Kamali K, Mostafavi SA, Rahgozar M, Ahmadi A, Hooshyari Z, Alavi SS, Molavi P, Sarraf N, Hojjat SK, Mohammadzadeh S, Amiri S, Arman S, Ghanizadeh A, Ahmadipour A, Ostova R, Nazari H, Hosseini SH, Golbon A, Derakhshanpour F, Delpisheh A, Riahi F, Talepasand S, Mojahed A, Hajian Motlagh N, Heydari Yazdi AS, Ahmadpanah M, Dastjerdi R, Amirian H, Armani A, Safavi P, Kousha M, Alaghmand A, Eslami Shahrbabaki M, Kiani A, Mahmoudi Gharaei J, Shakiba A, Zarafshan H, Salmanian M, Taylor E, Fombonne E. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders in a National Survey of Iranian Children and Adolescents. Iran J Psychiatry. 14(1):1-15.
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