Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale) DERS-6 & DERS-5- Revised( in an Iranian Clinical Sample
AbstractObjective: The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and reliability of the two forms of the Persian version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised) in a clinical sample.Methods: The clinical sample consisted of 181 patients diagnosed with Functional GI Disorders (FGID) who referred to the digestive psychosomatic clinic in Isfahan in 2012. They were selected by census method (In a given period of time). The Persian version of the DERS, the short form of the DASS, and the TAS-20 were used to collect data.Results: The results of the factor structure or construct validity using principal components analysis with varimax rotation recognized 7 factors for the DERS-6 (Goals, Awarness, Impalse, Non Acceptance, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition), and 6 factors for the DERS-5- revised (Non Acceptance, Goals, Impalse, Strategy, Clarity, Recognition) in the clinical sample. They showed the common variance of 59.51% and 59.15%, respectively. Also, the results showed that the concurrent validity of both forms of the DERS and most of their factors, and their reliability in terms of Cronbach-Alpha were favorable.Discussion: Considering the factor structure and favorable psychometric properties of the two scales of DERS-6 & DERS-5-revised, the scales can be used in clinical samples.
Hassani J. [The evaluation of validity and reliability cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire short form (Persian)]. Journal of behavioral Sciences 2011; 9: 229-240.
Parrott WG. Beyond hedonism: Motives forinhibiting good moods and for maintaining bad moods. In Wegner DM. & Pennebaker JW. Handbook of mental control. Pearson Press 1993: 278-305.
Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Feldman Barrett L. Handbook of emotion. 3Ed, Chapter 31. New York: The Guilford Press; 2008.
Gross JJ. The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology 1998; 2: 271-299.
Gross JJ, Munoz RF. Emotion regulation and mental health. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 1995; 2: 151–164.
Cole PM, Michel MK, Teti LO. The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. In: Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2004; 26: 41-54.
Thompson RA, Calkins SD. The double-edged sword: Emotion regulation in high risk children. Development and Psychopathology 1996; 8: 163–182.
Thompson RA. Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 1994; 59: 25–52.
Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2004; 26: 55-41.
Berking M, Poppe C, Luhmann M, Wupperman P, Jaggi V, Seifritz E. Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2011; 43: 931-937.
khanzadeh M, Saidiyan M, Hosseinchary M & Edrissi F. [Factor structure and psychometric properties of difficulties of emotional regulation scale (Persian)]. Journal of behavioral Sciences 2012; 6: 96-87.
Bergdahl J, Armelius K, Armelius BA. Affect-based treatment and outcome for a group of psychosomatic patients. Sweden: Department of Applied Psychology; 2000:
Notarius CI, Levenson RW. Expressive tendencies and physiological response to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1979; 37: 1204–1210.
Gross JJ, Levenson RW. Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. J Abnorm Psychol 997; 106: 95–103.
Begley TM. Expressed and suppressed anger aspredictors of health complaints. J Organiz Behav 1994; 15: 503-516.
Berry DS, Pennebaker JW. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health. Psychother Psychosom 1993; 59: 11-19.
Miller NA, Mclean CP, Hope DA. Difficulties with Emotion Regulation: confirmatory factor analysis and relationship with several anxiety measures. 40th annual conferene for the association of behavioral and cognitive therapy 2006.
Adams LJ. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation scale. Dissertation. Southern Illinois University Carbondale 2008.
Ruganci RN, Gencoz T. Psychometric properties of a Turkish version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. J Clin Psychol 2010; 66: 442-455.
Sighinolfi C, Pala AN, Chiri LR, Marchetti I , Sica C. Difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS): the italian translation and adaptation. Psicoterapia Cognitive Comportamentale 2010; 16:141-170.
Mitsopoulou E, Kafetsios K, Karademas E, Papastefanakis E, Simos PG. The Greek Version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale: Testing the Factor Structure, Reliability and Validity in an Adult Community Sample. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2013; 35: 123-131.
Tejeda MM, García RR, Palos PA, Forteza CG. Psychometric properties of the “difficulties in emotion regulation scale” in Spanish (DERS-E) in Mexican adolescents. European Psychiatry 2010; 35: 521-526.
Bardeen JR, Fergus TA, Orcutt HK. An Examination of the Latent Structure of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2012; 34: 382–392.
Neumann A, van Lier PAC, Gratz KL, Koot HM. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Assessment 2010; 17: 138–149
Tull MT, Barrett HM, McMillan ES & Roemer L. A preliminary investigation between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavior Therapy 2007; 38, 303–313.
Tull MT, Gratz K, Latzman RD, Kimbrel NA, Lejuez, CW. Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and emotion regu-lation difficulties: A multimodal investigation. Personality and Individual Differences 2010; 49: 989–994.
Bagby RM, Parker JDA &Taylor GJ.The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale-I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1994; 38: 23-32.
Muller J, Alpers GW, Reim N, Sub H. Abnormal attentional bias in alexithymia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2004; 56: 581-673.
Besharat M. Psychometric Characteristics of Persian Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples. IJMS 2008; 33: 1-6.
Mazaheri M, Afshar H, Mohammadi N, Daghaghzadeh H, Bagerian R, Adibi P.The relationship of the dimensions of alexithymia with depression and anxiety in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Research projects. Isfahan: Behavioral Sciences Research Center 2009.
Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH.The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behave Res Ther 1995; 33: 335-343.
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Sydney, Australia: Psychology Foundation; 1995.
Samani S, Jokar B. the evaluation of validity and riability of short form of Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS). Journal Social and Human Science of Shiraz University 2007; 26: 65-76.
Lotfizadeh M Noor-hassim I , Habibi E. Analysis of occupational stress and the related issues among employees of Esfahan steel company (ESCO), Iran (2009). Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences 2011; 13: 37-45.
Salvucci S, Walter E, Conley V, Fink S, Saba M. Measurement error studies at the National Center for Education Statistics. Washington D. C.: U. S. Department of Education; 1997.
Molavi H. The Practical Guide of SPSS 10, 13, 14 in Behavioral Sciences. Isfahan: Pouyesh Andisheh; 114.
Ogdan JA, von Sturmer G. Emotional strategies and their relationship to complaints of psychosomatic and neurotic symptoms. J Clin Psychol 1984; 40: 772-779.