Associated Factors of Suicidal Thoughts in HIV-Positive Individuals
Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population .
Methods: One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90) as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively .
Results: Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001), depression (p<0.001), poor physical activity (P<0.001) and sleep quality (p<0.001) were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04), living alone (p = 0.01), and lack of family support (p = 0.01) were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts .
Conclusion: Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study.
Malakouti SK, Nojomi M, Bolhari J, Hakimshooshtari M, Poshtmashhadi M, De Leo D. Prevalence of suicide thoughts, plans and attempts in a community sample from Karaj, Iran. Community mental health journal 2009;45: 37-41.
Cooperman NA, Simoni JM. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among women living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 28: 149-156.
Brown GK. A review of suicide assessment measures for intervention research with adults and older adults: GK Brown; 2001.
Lawrence ST, Willig JH, Crane HM, Ye J, Aban I, Lober W, et al. Routine, self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based suicidal ideation assessment linked to automated response team notification in an HIV primary care setting. Clinical infectious diseases 2010; 50:1165-1173.
Shittu RO, Alabi MK, Odeigah LO, Sanni MA, Issa BA, Olanrewaju AT, et al. Suicidal Ideation among Depressed People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, West Africa. Open Journal of Medical Psychology 2014; 2014.
Keiser O, Spoerri A, Brinkhof MW, Hasse B, Gayet-Ageron A, Tissot F, et al. Suicide in HIV-infected individuals and the general population in Switzerland, 1988–2008. American Journal of Psychiatry 2010; 167: 143-150.
Pugh K, O'donnell I, Catalan J. Suicide and HIV disease. AIDS care 1993; 5: 391-400.
Vance DE, Moneyham L, Fordham P, Struzick TC. A model of suicidal ideation in adults aging with HIV. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2008; 19: 375-384.
Komiti A, Judd F, Grech P, Mijch A, Hoy J, Lloyd JH, et al. Suicidal behaviour in people with HIV/AIDS: a review. Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry 2001; 35: 747-757.
1Razavi P, Hajifathalian K, Saeidi B, Esmaeeli Djavid G, Rasoulinejad M, Hajiabdolbaghi M, et al. Quality of life among persons with HIV/AIDS in Iran: internal reliability and validity of an international instrument and associated factors. AIDS research and treatment 2012; 2012.
Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Remien RH, Charlebois ED, Steward WT, et al. Correlates of suicidal ideation among HIV-positive persons Aids 2007; 21: 1199-1203.
Guimarães PM, Passos SR, Calvet GA, Hökerberg YH, Lessa JL, Andrade CAd. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease. Revista brasileira de psiquiatria. 2014(AHEAD):00-.
Kelly B, Raphael B, Judd F, Perdices M, Kernutt GJ, Burnett PC, et al. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and HIV infection. Psychosomatics 1998; 39: 405-415.
Dabaghzadeh F, Ghaeli P, Khalili H, Alimadadi A, Jafari S, Akhondzadeh S, et al. Cyproheptadine for prevention of neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz: a randomized clinical trial. AIDS patient care and STDs 2013; 27: 146-154.
Sarin E, Singh B, Samson L, Sweat M. Suicidal ideation and HIV risk behaviors among a cohort of injecting drug users in New Delhi, India. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy 2013; 8: 2.
Ziaaddini H, Navadeh S, Saeedi A. Prevalence of suicide ideation, attempts and the associated factors among a sample of Iranian population in south part of the country: A population based study. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2009; 4.
SeyedAlinaghi S, Paydary K, Kazerooni PA, Hosseini M, Sedaghat A, Fard S. Evaluation Stigma Index among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in six cities in IRAN. Thrita 2013; 2: 69-75.
Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Ebrahimi M, Jarvandi S. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Health and quality of life outcomes 2003; 1: 14.
Savard J, Laberge B, Gauthier JG, Ivers H, Bergeron MG. Evaluating anxiety and depression in HIV-infected patients. Journal of Personality Assessment 1998; 71: 349-367.
Osman A, Gutierrez PM, Kopper BA, Barrios FX, Chiros CE. The positive and negative suicide ideation inventory: Development and validation. Psychological reports 1998; 82: 783-793.
Osman A, Gutierrez PM, Jiandani J, Kopper BA, Barrios FX, Linden SC, et al. A preliminary validation of the Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory with normal adolescent samples. Journal of clinical psychology 2003; 59: 493-512.
Chang HJ, Lin CC, Chou KR, Ma WF, Yang CY. Chinese version of the positive and negative suicide ideation: instrument development. Journal of advanced nursing 2009; 65:1485-1496.
Moghaddam JF, Nakhaee N, Sheibani V, Garrusi B, Amirkafi A. Reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-P). Sleep and Breathing 2012;16: 79-82.
Nokes KM, Kendrew J. Correlates of sleep quality in persons with HIV disease. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2001; 12: 17-22.
Dabaghzadeh F, Khalili H, Ghaeli P, Alimadadi A. Sleep Quality and Its Correlates in HIV Positive Patients Who Are Candidates for Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2013; 8: 160-164.
Mirzai R. Standardizing and validating the SCL-90-R in Iran. [Unpublished master’s thesis, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran(Persion)] 1979.
Hedayati-Moghaddam M, Mashhadi IE, Zibaee R, Hosseinpoor A, Fathi-Moghaddam F, Bidkhori H. Assessment of psychiatric symptoms using SCL-90-R among HIV/AIDS individuals in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2011; 13: 58.
Kalichman SC, Heckman T, Kochman A, Sikkema K, Bergholte J. Depression and thoughts of suicide among middle-aged and older persons living with HIV-AIDS. Psychiatric Services 2000; 51: 903-907.
Kelly B, Raphael B, Judd F, Perdices M, Kernutt G, Burnett P, et al. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and HIV infection. Psychosomatics 1998; 39: 405-415.
Govender R, Schlebusch L. Hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation in HIV-positive persons. South African Journal of Psychiatry 2012;18:16-21.
McManus H, Petoumenos K, Franic T, Kelly MD, Watson J, O’Connor CC, et al. Determinants of suicide and accidental or violent death in the Australian HIV Observational Database. PloS one 2014; 9: e89089.
Jia C-X, Mehlum L, Qin P. AIDS/HIV infection, comorbid psychiatric illness, and risk for subsequent suicide: a nationwide register linkage study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2012; 73:1315.
Haller DL, Miles DR. Suicidal ideation among psychiatric patients with HIV: psychiatric morbidity and quality of life. AIDS and Behavior 2003; 7: 101-118.
Freeman M, Nkomo N, Kafaar Z, Kelly K. Factors associated with prevalence of mental disorder in people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. AIDS care 2007;19: 1201-129.
Somlai AM, Heckman TG. Correlates of spirituality and well-being in a community sample of people living with HIV disease. Mental Health, Religion & Culture 2000; 3: 57-70.