The Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity among Mothers Referring to Community Health Centers

  • Neda Ezzeddin Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition science and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Hassan Jahanihashemi Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Roza Zavoshy Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
  • Mostafa Noroozi Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.
Keywords: Food Security, Pregnancy Complication, Postpartum Depression, Socioeconomic

Abstract

Objective: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a condition which may compromise both maternal and neonatal health. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of PPD and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric, and household food security status.Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in community health centers in west of Tehran. A total of 325 women were selected by stratified sampling method from community health centers. A sociodemographic questionnaire, USDA 18-item questionnaire, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and analytic analyses, such as chi-squared test and logistic regression in SPSS 22.Results: The prevalence of PPD and food insecurity among the studied population was 35.4% and 34.2%, respectively. The results of this study revealed a significant association among PPD  and food insecurity (OR = 6.690, CI  =  3.118-14.353, p<0.001), the levels of economic satisfaction (OR  =  3.419, CI  =  1.241-9.420, P  =  0.017), pregnancy loss (OR  =  1.899, CI  =  1.006-3.582, p  =  0.048), and pregnancy complications (OR  =  1.853, CI  =  1.083-3.170, P  =  0.024).Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, household food insecurity may predispose mothers to PPD. Moreover, it was observed that mothers with poor economic satisfaction were more likely to be depressed. Histories of pregnancy loss and pregnancy complications were other risk factors for PPD.

References

Patel M, Bailey RK, Jabeen S, Ali S, Barker NC, Osiezagha K. Postpartum Depression: A Review. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2012; 23: 534–542.

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan & Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. 10th eds. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

Ellsworth-Bowers ER, Corwin EJ. Nutrition and the psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression. Nutr Res Rev 2012; 25: 180–192.

Pearlstein T, Howard M, Salisbury A, Zlotnick C. Postpartum depression. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 200: 357–364.

Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behav Dev 2010; 33: 1–6.

Ghaedrahmati M, Kazemi A, Kheirabadi G, Ebrahimi A, Bahrami M. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review. J Educ Health Promot. 2017;6:60–60.

Veisani Y, Delpisheh A, Sayehmiri K, Rezaeian S. Trends of Postpartum Depression in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Depress Res Treat. 2013; 2013: e291029.

Giannandrea SAM, Cerulli C, Anson E, Chaudron LH. Increased risk for postpartum psychiatric disorders among women with past pregnancy loss. J Womens Health 2002. 2013; 22: 760–768.

Hahn-Holbrook J, Cornwell-Hinrichs T, Anaya I. Economic and Health Predictors of National Postpartum Depression Prevalence: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-Regression of 291 Studies from 56 Countries. Front Psychiatry. 2017;8:248.

Braveman P, Marchi K, Egerter S, Kim S, Metzler M, Stancil T, et al. Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy. Matern Child Health J 2010; 14: 20–35.

Abbasi N, Ghoochani OM, Ghanian M, Kitterlin M. Assessment of Households’ Food Insecurity through use of a USDA Questionnaire. Adv Plants Agric Res. 2016 Oct 18;4(5):1–8.

Ivers LC, Cullen KA. Food insecurity: special considerations for women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011; 94: 1740S-1744S.

Weaver LJ, Hadley C. Moving Beyond Hunger and Nutrition: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Linking Food Insecurity and Mental Health in Developing Countries. Ecol Food Nutr 2009; 48: 263–284.

Bronte-Tinkew J, Zaslow M, Capps R, Horowitz A, McNamara M. Food Insecurity Works through Depression, Parenting, and Infant Feeding to Influence Overweight and Health in Toddlers. J Nutr 2007; 137: 2160–2165.

Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Gundersen C, Dole N. Psychosocial Factors and Socioeconomic Indicators Are Associated with Household Food Insecurity among Pregnant Women. J Nutr 2006; 136: 177–182.

Hadley C, Patil CL. Food insecurity in rural Tanzania is associated with maternal anxiety and depression. Am J Hum Biol 2006; 18: 359–368.

Dewing S, Tomlinson M, le Roux IM, Chopra M, Tsai AC. Food insecurity and its association with co-occurring postnatal depression, hazardous drinking, and suicidality among women in peri-urban South Africa. J Affect Disord 2013; 150: 460–465.

Edalati-Fard F, Mirghafourvand M, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Farshbaf-Khalili A. Relationship of Zinc and Magnesium Serum Levels with Postpartum Depression in Tabriz-Iran. Glob J Health Sci 2016; 8: 120-126.

Maracy MR, Iranpour S, Esmaillzadeh A, Kheirabadi GHR. [Dietary Patterns During Pregnancy and the Risk of Postpartum Depression (In Persian)]. Iran J Epidemiol 2014 15; 10: 45–55.

Payab M, Motlagh AD, Eshraghian M, Rostami R, Siassi F. The association of family food security and depression in mothers having primary school children in Ray-Iran. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014; 13: 65.

Bickel, G., Nord, M., Price, C., Hamilton, W.L., Cook, J.T. (2000). Guide to measuring household food security,revised 2000. Alexandria, VA: USDA Food and Nutrition Service; 2000; Avalilable at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/foodsecurity.

Ramesh T, Dorosty Motlagh AR, Abdollahi M. Prevalence of household food insecurity in the City of Shiraz and its association with socio-economic and demographic factors, 2008. Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol. 2010 Jan 15;4(4):53–64.

Rafiei M, Nord M, Sadeghizadeh A, Entezari MH. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran. Nutr J 2009 26; 8: 28.

Montazeri A, Torkan B, Omidvari S. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. BMC Psychiatry 2007; 7: 11.

Tashakori A, Behbahani AZ, Irani RD. Comparison Of Prevalence Of Postpartum Depression Symptoms Between Breastfeeding Mothers And Non-breastfeeding Mothers. Iran J Psychiatry 2012; 7: 61–65.

G. Khooshemehry G, Shariati Feizabady A, Naserkhaki V. [Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and the Factors that Decides in Clinics in the North of Tehran (In Persian]. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac 2011; 19: 59–69.

Manshoori A, Bidaki R, Esmaily H. Frequency of postpartum depression and its related factors in women referred to health centers in Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2015. J Occup Health Epidemiol 2017; 6: 17–24.

Abdollahi F, Agajani-Delavar M, Zarghami M, Lye M-S. Postpartum Mental Health in First-Time Mothers: A Cohort Study. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2016; 10: e426.

Veisani Y, Sayehmiri K. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression in Iran - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Koomesh 2012; 15: 21–29.

Gausia K, Ryder D, Ali M, Fisher C, Moran A, Koblinsky M. Obstetric complications and psychological well-being: experiences of Bangladeshi women during pregnancy and childbirth. J Health Popul Nutr 2012; 30: 172–180.

Blom EA, Jansen PW, Verhulst FC, Hofman A, Raat H, Jaddoe VWV, et al. Perinatal complications increase the risk of postpartum depression. The Generation R Study. BJOG 2010; 117: 1390–1398.

Shivalli S, Gururaj N. Postnatal depression among rural women in South India: do socio-demographic, obstetric and pregnancy outcome have a role to play? PloS One 2015; 10: e0122079.

Sooki Z, Tagharobi Z, Sharifi S, Sharifi K, Musavi S, Zahmatkesh B. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in an Iranian Population, 2006. Nurs Midwifery Stud 2012; 1: 12–15.

Barton K, Redshaw M, Quigley MA, Carson C. Unplanned pregnancy and subsequent psychological distress in partnered women: a cross-sectional study of the role of relationship quality and wider social support. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 Jan 26;17(1):44.

Ria MB, Budihastuti UR, Sudiyanto A. Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at Dr. Moewardi Hospital, Surakarta. J Matern Child Health. 2018;3(1):81–90.

Shivani A. Patel PJS. Unwanted childbearing and household food insecurity in the United States. Matern Child Nutr 2016; 12: 362–372.

Patel V, Rodrigues M, DeSouza N. Gender, Poverty, and Postnatal Depression: A Study of Mothers in Goa, India. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 43–47.

Hromi-Fiedler A, Bermúdez-Millán A, Segura-Pérez S, Damio G, Pérez-Escamilla R. Adaptation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Low-Income Pregnant Latinas: Qualitative Phase. J Hunger Environ Nutr 2009; 4: 62–80.

Qobadi M, Collier C, Zhang L. The Effect of Stressful Life Events on Postpartum Depression: Findings from the 2009–2011 Mississippi Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Matern Child Health J. 2016;20(Suppl 1):164–72.

Gundersen C, Weinreb L, Wehler C, Hosmer D. Homelessness and food insecurity. J Hous Econ 2003; 12: 250–272.

Published
2018-08-19
How to Cite
1.
Ezzeddin N, Jahanihashemi H, Zavoshy R, Noroozi M. The Prevalence of Postpartum Depression and Its Association with Food Insecurity among Mothers Referring to Community Health Centers. ijps. 13(4):280-7.
Section
Original Article(s)