Craving and Drug Reward: A Comparison of Celecoxib and Ibuprofen in Detoxifying Opiate Addicts

  • sara jafari Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
  • sana khajehpour Research center of Rational use of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
  • emran mohammad razzaghi Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • kazem heidari Department of Epidemiology Investigations, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
  • mehdi soleimani Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
  • padideh ghaeli Mail Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Roozbeh Hospital, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
Celecoxib, Desire for Drug Questionnaire, Ibuprofen, Opioid craving, Pain.


Objective: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction who are in opioid detoxifying process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. The present trial aimed at comparing the effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification (n = 32).
Method: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients), who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure and met the inclusion criteria entered this 4- week study. Participants who suffered from pain due to opiate withdrawal were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received celecoxib 200 milligrams once per day and group 2 received
ibuprofen 400 milligrams 4 times per day. Self-reported Desire for Drug Questionnaire (DDQ) and 0-10 numeric pain scale were used at baseline and at the end of the study to evaluate changes in opiate craving and pain, respectively. Data analysis was done by SPSS-21 statistical software.
Results: In this study, 16 patients received celecoxib 200 milligrams once daily, and 16 received ibuprofen 400
milligrams 4 times daily. After 4 weeks of treatment with both ibuprofen and celecoxib, the results revealed that
celecoxib and ibuprofen equally reduced the pain symptoms. After 4 weeks of treatment, with either ibuprofen or celecoxib, significant improvement was observed in decreasing the craving in the celecoxib group, but not in the ibuprofen group.
Conclusion: The study revealed a significant difference between the celecoxib and ibuprofen group in reducing craving in patients with opiate craving after 4 weeks of treatment. However there were no significant differences between these two groups in reducing pain.


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How to Cite
jafari sara, khajehpour sana, razzaghi emran mohammad, heidari kazem, soleimani mehdi, ghaeli padideh. Craving and Drug Reward: A Comparison of Celecoxib and Ibuprofen in Detoxifying Opiate Addicts. Iran J Psychiatry. 12(4):226-232.
Original Article(s)