Psychological Factors Including Demographic Features, Mental Illnesses, and Personality Disorders as Predictors in Internet Addiction Disorders
Objective: Problematic internet use is an important social problem among adolescents and has become a global health issue. This study identified predictors and patterns of problematic internet use among adult students.
Method: In this study, 400 students were recruited using stratified sampling technique. Participants were selected among students from 4 universities in Tehran and Karaj, Iran, during 2016 and 2017. Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - Third Edition (MCMI-III), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I), and semi-structured interview were used to diagnose internet addiction. Then, the association between main psychiatric disorders and internet addiction was surveyed. Data were analyzed using SPSS18 software by performing descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P- Values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: After controlling the demographic variables, it was found that narcissistic personality disorder, obsessive- compulsive personality disorder, anxiety, bipolar disorders, depression, and phobia could increase the odds ratio (OR) of internet addiction by 2.1, 1.1, 2.6, 1.1, 2.2 and 2.5-folds, respectively (p-value<0.05), however, other psychiatric or personality disorders did not have a significant effect on the equation.
Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that some mental disorders affect internet addiction. Considering the sensitivity and importance of the cyberspace, it is necessary to evaluate mental disorders that correlate with internet addiction.
Alavi SS, Ferdosi M, Jannatifard F, Eslami M, Alaghemandan H, Setare M. Behavioral Addiction versus Substance Addiction: Correspondence of Psychiatric and Psychological Views. Int J Prev Med. 2012; 3: 290–294.
Mohammadi Kalhori S, Mohammadi MR, Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Sepahbodi G, Baba Reisi M, et al. Validation and Psychometric Properties of Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) in University Students of Tehran. Iran J Psychiatry 2015; 10: 25-31.
Das A, Sharma MK, Thamilselvan P, Marimuthu P. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting. Indian J Psychol Med 2017; 39: 21-27.
Alavi SS, Maracy MR, Jannatifard F, Ojaghi R, Rezapour H. The psychometric properties of cellular phone dependency questionnaire in students of Isfahan: A pilot study. J Educ Health Promot 2014; 3: 71.
Grant JE, Chamberlain SR. Impulsive action and impulsive choice across substance and behavioral addictions: cause or consequence? Addict Behav2014; 39: 1632-1639.
Young K. Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction and a winning strategy for recovery. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1998.
Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck PE, Jr., Khosla UM, McElroy SL. Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. J Affect Disord 2000; 57: 267-272.
Dong G, Li H, Wang L, Potenza MN. Cognitive control and reward/loss processing in Internet gaming disorder: Results from a comparison with recreational Internet game-users. Eur Psychiatry 2017; 44: 30-38.
Khoshakhlagh H, Faramarzi S. The relationship of emotional intelligence and mental disorders with internet addiction in internet users university students. Addict Health 2012; 4: 133-141.
Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CC, Chen SH, Yen CF. Proposed diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction for adolescents. J Nerv Ment Dis 2005; 193: 728-733.
Spada MM, Langston B, Nikčević AV, Moneta GB. The role of metacognitions in problematic Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior 2008; 24: 2325-2335.
Jenaro C, Flores N, Gómez-Vela M, González-Gil F, Caballo C. Problematic internet and cell-phone use: Psychological, behavioral, and health correlates. Addiction Research & Theory 2007; 15: 309-320.
Barthakur M, Sharma MK. Problematic internet use and mental health problems. Asian J Psychiatr 2012; 5: 279-280.
Alavi SS, Maracy MR, Jannatifard F, Eslami M. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan's University students. J Res Med Sci 2011; 16: 793-800.
Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Wu HY, Yang MJ. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. J Adolesc Health 2007; 41: 93-98.
Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CS, Yeh YC, Yen CF. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2009; 163: 937-943.
Morrison CM, Gore H. The relationship between excessive Internet use and depression: a questionnaire-based study of 1,319 young people and adults. Psychopathology 2010; 43: 121-126.
Christakis DA, Moreno MM, Jelenchick L, Myaing MT, Zhou C. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study. BMC Med 2011; 9: 77.
Alavi SS, Alaghemandan H, Maracy MR, Jannatifard F, Eslami M, Ferdosi M. Impact of addiction to internet on a number of psychiatric symptoms in students of isfahan universities, iran, 2010. Int J Prev Med 2012; 3: 122-127.
Zadra S, Bischof G, Besser B, Bischof A, Meyer C, John U, et al. The association between Internet addiction and personality disorders in a general population-based sample. J Behav Addict. 2016; 5: 691-699.
Montag C, Reuter M. Internet Addiction. Neuroscientific Approaches and Therapeutical Implications Including Smartphone Addiction. second ed: Springer International Publishing Switzerland; 2017.
Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Maracy M, Eslami M, Rezapour H, Najafi M. [The Psychometric Properties of Young Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Student internet users (In Persian)]. Bahav Sci Res. 2010;4:185-9.
Alavi SS, Jannatifard F, Maracy MR, Alaghemandan H, Setare M. Comparison of national and personal identity between person with internet addiction disorder and normal internet users. J Educ Health Promot 2014; 3: 42.
Niecke A, Peters K, Samel C, Forster K, Lungen M, Pfaff H, et al. Mental Disorders in People Affected by Thalidomide. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017; 114: 168-174.
Duarte-Guerra LS, Coelho BM, Santo MA, Wang YP. Psychiatric disorders among obese patients seeking bariatric surgery: results of structured clinical interviews. Obes Surg 2015; 25: 830-837.
Millon T, Grossman S, Millon C. MCMI-IV: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Manual. 1 ed: Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc; 2015.
Blais MA, Holdwick DJ Jr, McLean RY, Otto MW, Pollack MH, Hilsenroth MJ. Exploring the psychometric properties and construct validity of the MCMI-III anxiety and avoidant personality scales. J Pers Assess 2003; 81: 237-241.
Asiri S, Fallahi F, Ghanbari A, Kazemnejad-Leili E. Internet addiction and its predictors in guilan medical sciences students, 2012. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2013; 2: 234-239.
Fu KW, Chan WS, Wong PW, Yip PS. Internet addiction: prevalence, discriminant validity and correlates among adolescents in Hong Kong. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 486-492.
Lee BW, Stapinski LA. Seeking safety on the internet: relationship between social anxiety and problematic internet use. J Anxiety Disord 2012; 26: 197-205.
Ghamari F, Mohammadbeigi A, Mohammadsalehi N, Hashiani AA. Internet addiction and modeling its risk factors in medical students, iran. Indian J Psychol Med 2011; 33: 158-162.
Chou C, Condron L, Belland J.C. A review of the research on Internet addiction. Educ Psychol Rev 2005; 17: 363–388.
Ha JH, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Chin B, Shin D, Kim JH. Psychiatric comorbidity assessed in Korean children and adolescents who screen positive for Internet addiction. J Clin Psychiatry 2006; 67: 821-826.
Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CC, Chen SH, Ko CH. Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 2007; 10: 323-329.
Ge Y, Se J, Zhang J. Research on relationship among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health of urban left-behind children. Glob J Health Sci 2014; 7: 60-69.
Black DW, Belsare G, Schlosser S. Clinical features, psychiatric comorbidity, and health-related quality of life in persons reporting compulsive computer use behavior. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60: 839-844.
Bernardi S, Pallanti S. Internet addiction: a descriptive clinical study focusing on comorbidities and dissociative symptoms. Compr Psychiatry 2009; 50: 510-516.
Floros G, Siomos K, Stogiannidou A, Giouzepas I, Garyfallos G. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with Internet addiction in a clinical sample: the effect of personality, defense style and psychopathology. Addict Behav 2014; 39: 1839-1845.
Ko HC, Wu JY, Lane HY. Personality Disorders in Female and Male College Students With Internet Addiction. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017; 205: 740-741.
Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Chen CC. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry 2012; 27: 1-8.
Yen CF, King BH, Tang TC. The association between short and long nocturnal sleep durations and risky behaviours and the moderating factors in Taiwanese adolescents. Psychiatry Res 2010; 179: 69-74.
Laconi S, Kaliszewska-Czeremska K, Gnisci A, Sergi I, Barke A, Jeromin F, et al. Cross-cultural study of Problematic Internet Use in nine European countries. Computers in Human Behavior 2018; 84: 430-440.
Yen CF, Chou WJ, Liu TL, Yang P, Hu HF. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Compr Psychiatry 2014; 55: 1601-1608.
Carli V, Durkee T, Wasserman D, Hadlaczky G, Despalins R, Kramarz E, et al. The association between pathological internet use and comorbid psychopathology: a systematic review. Psychopathology 2013; 46: 1-13.
Kim K, Ryu E, Chon MY, Yeun EJ, Choi SY, Seo JS, et al. Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud 2006; 43: 185-192.
Ha JH, Kim SY, Bae SC, Bae S, Kim H, Sim M, et al. Depression and Internet addiction in adolescents. Psychopathology 2007; 40: 424-430.
Wolfling K, Beutel ME, Dreier M, Muller KW. Bipolar spectrum disorders in a clinical sample of patients with Internet addiction: hidden comorbidity or differential diagnosis? J Behav Addict 2015; 4: 101-105.
Campbell AJ, Cumming SR, Hughes I. Internet use by the socially fearful: addiction or therapy? Cyberpsychol Behav 2006; 9: 69-81.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.