Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers

  • Alipasha Meysamie Mail Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Reza Ghalehtaki Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Arash Ghazanfari Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Maryam Daneshvar-Fard Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Children psychology, Iranian children, Physical Aggression, Relational Aggression, Verbal Aggression


Objective: Childhood aggression may lead to severe social disorders in adolescence and adulthood. Different psychiatric approaches are focused on preschool aged aggressive children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of childhood direct and indirect aggression .
Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 1403 children attending 43   kindergartens   were   assessed.   Data   were   collected   through   a structured  46-item  questionnaire  investigating  symptoms  of  physical, verbal and relational aggression which was completed by parents and teachers  of  day-care  centers.  Complex  sample  survey  analysis  and multivariate logistic regression method were used for data analysis.
Results: According to parents’ rating, the prevalence of physical ,verbal and relational aggression, was 9.9% (95% CI=7.4%-12.4%) , 6.3% (95% CI=5.0% -7.6%) and 1.6% (95%CI=1.0%-2.2%), respectively; while based on  teachers’  rating  the  prevalence  of  physical  ,verbal  and  rela ional aggression were 10.9% (95% CI=8.9% -12.9%), 4.9%(95% CI=3.8% - 6.0%) and 6% (95% CI=4.4% -7.6%), respectively. A wide range of family environment factors including living with a single parent, having a working mother, death of someone close to the child, and having less educated mother were significantly associated with different types of aggression; additionally, there was some evidence of a relationship between sex of the children and physical aggression, after controlling for other variables (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study revealed that children’s family environment alongside internal factors plays an important role as an external factor in determining the child’s potential aggressive behavior. Given this, to better prevent the aggressive behavior of children, intervention strategies should be planned for families and caregivers; specially mothers should receive training to use such strategies.


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How to Cite
Meysamie A, Ghalehtaki R, Ghazanfari A, Daneshvar-Fard M, Mohammadi MR. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Physical, Verbal and Relational Aggression among Iranian Preschoolers. Iran J Psychiatry. 8(3):138-44.