Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.
AbstractIncapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Event related potential (ERP) studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD) group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude) were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05). Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05). The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders, 4th eds. Washington D.C: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Cipolotti L, Robinson G, Blair J, Frith U. Fractionation of visual memory: Evidence from a case with multiple neurodevelopmental impairments. Neuropsychologia 1999; 37: 455-465.
Hauck M, Fein D, Maltby N, Waterhouse L, Feinstein C. Memory for faces in children with autism. Child Neuropsychology 1998; 4: 187–198.
Jambaque I, Mottron L, Ponsot G, Chiron C. Autism and visual agnosia in a child with right occipital lobectomy. J NeurolNeurosurg Psychiatry1998; 65: 555–560.
Klin A. Young autistic children’s listening preferencesin regard to speech: A possible characterization of the symptom of social withdrawal. J Autism Dev Disord 1991; 21: 29-42 .
Klin A, Jones W, Schultz R, Volkmar F, Cohen D. Defining and quantifying the social phenotype in autism. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159: 895–908.
Ozonoff S, Pennington BF, Rogers SJ. Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1990; 31: 343-361.
Teunisse JP, de Gelder B. Face processing in adolescents with autistic disorder: the in version and composite effects. Brain Cogn 2003; 52: 285-294.
Schultz RT, Gauthier I, Klin A, Fulbright RK, Anderson AW, Volkmar F et al. Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57: 331–340.
Pierce K, Muller RA, Ambroses J, Allen G, Courchesne E. Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘face area’ in autism: Evidence from fMRI. Brain 2001; 124: 2059-2073.
Bentin S, Allison T, Puce A, Perez E, McCarthy G. Electrophysiological studies of face perception in humans. J Cogn Neurosci 1996; 8: 551-565.
Rossion B, Delvenne JF, Debatisse D, Goffaux V, Bruyer R, Crommelinck M, et al. Spatio-temporal localization of the face inversion effect: An event related potentials study. Biol Psychol 1999; 50: 173-189.
Itier RJ, Taylor MJ. Inversion and contrast polarity reversal affect both encoding and recognition processes of unfamiliar faces: a repetition study using ERPs. Neuroimage 2002; 15: 353–372.
Rossion B, Curran T, Gauthier I. A defense of the subordinate-level expertise account for the N170 component. Cognition 2002; 85: 189-196.
Busey TA, Vanderkolk JR. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for configural processing in fingerprint experts. Vision Res 2005; 45: 431-448.
Tanaka JW. Curran T. A neural basis for expert object recognition. Psychol Sci 2001; 12: 43-47.
Gauthier I, Curran T, Curby KM, Collins D. Perceptual interference supports a non-modular account of face processing. Nature Neuroscience 2003; 6: 428-432.
Rossion B, Collins D, Goffaux V, Curran T. Long-term expertise with artificial objects increases visual competition with early face categorization processes. J Cogn Neurosci 2007; 19: 543-555.
O’Connor K, Hamm JP, Kirk IJ. The neuropsychological correlates of face processing in adults and children with Asperger’s syndrome. Brain Cogn 2005; 59: 82-95.
Gunji A, Inagaki M, Inoue Y, Takeshima Y, Kaga M. Event-related potential of self-face recognition in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Brain Dev 2009; 9; 31: 139-147.
Lahaie A, Mottron L, Arguin M, Berthiaume C, Jemel B, Saumier D. Face Perception in High-Functioning Autistic Adults: Evidence for Superior Processing of Face Parts, Not for a Configural Face-Processing Deficit. Neuropsychology 2006; 20: 30-41.
Scherf KS, Luna B, Kimchi R, Minshew N, Behrmann M. Missing the big picture: Impaired development of global shape processing in autism. Autism Res 2008; 1: 114–129.
Rose FE, Lincoln AJ, Lai Z, Ene M, Searcy YM, Bellugi U. Orientation and affective expression effects on face recognition in Williams syndrome and autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2007; 37: 513-522.
McPartland J, Dawson G, Webb SJ, Panagiotides H, Carver L J. Event related brain potentials reveal anomalies in temporal processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004; 45: 1235-1245.
Boucher J, Lewis V. Unfamiliar face recognition in relatively able autistic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1992; 33: 843–859.
Braverman M, Fein D, Lucci D, Waterhouse L. Affect comprehension in children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 1989; 19: 301-316.
Davies S, Bishop D, Manstead ASR, Tantum D. Face perception in children with autism and Asperger’s syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004; 35: 1033–1057.
Celani G, Battacchi MW, Arcidiacono L. The understanding of the emotional meaning offacial expressions in people with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1999; 29: 57-66.
Dawson G, Carver L, Meltzoff AN, Panagiotides H, McPartland J, Webb SJ. Neural correlates of face and object recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. Child Dev 2002; 73: 700-717.
Gepner B, de Gelder B, de Schonen S. Face processing in autistics: Evidence for a generalized deifcit? Child Neuropsychology
Wallace S, Coleman M, Bailey A. Face and object processing in autism spectrum disorders. Autism research 2008; 1: 43-51.
Blair R, Frith U, Smith N, Abell F, Cipolotti L. Fractionation of visual memory: Agency detection and its impairment in autism. Neuropsychologia 2002; 40: 108–118.
Behrmann M, Thomas C, Humphreys K. Seeing it differently: Visual processing in autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2006; 10: 258–264.
O’Connor K, Hamm JP, Kirk IJ. Neurophysiological responses to face, facial regions, and objects in adults with Asperger’s syndrome: An ERP investigation. Int J Psychophysiol 2007; 63: 283–293.
Ozonoff S, Goodlin-Jones BL, Solomon M. Evidence-based assessment of autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2005; 34: 523-540.
Myles BS, Bock SJ, Simpson RL. Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS), PRO-ED, Austin, TX 2001.
Raven JC, Court JH, Raven J.Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press 1990.
Eimer M. The face-specific N170 component reflects late stages in the structural encoding of faces. Neuroreport 2000; 11: 2319–2324.
Keselman HJ. Testing treatment effects in repeated measures designs: An update for psychophysiological researchers. Psychophysiology 1998; 35: 470-478.
Tantam D, Monaghan L, Nicholson H, Stirling J. Autistic children’s ability to interpret faces: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1989; 30; 623–630.
Jansson-Verkasalo E, Ceponiene R, Kielinen M, Suominen K, Jantti V, Linna S et al. Deficient auditory processing in children with Asperger Syndrome, as indexed by event-related potentials. Neurosci Lett 2003; 338: 197-200.
Jansson-Verkasalo E, Kujala T, Jussila K, Mattila ML, Moilanen I, Naatanen R et al. Similarities in the phenotype of the auditory neural substrate in children with Asperger syndrome and their parents. Eur J Neurosci2005; 22: 986-990.
Townsend J, Westerfield M, Leaver E, Makeig S, Jung P, Pierce K, et al. Event-related brain response abnormalities in autism: Evidence for impaired cerebellofrontal spatial attention networks. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2001; 11: 127-145.
Just MA, Cherkassky VL, Keller TA, Kana RK, Minshew NJ. Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: Evidence from an fMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry. Cereb Cortex 2007; 17: 951-961 .
Itier RJ. Taylor MJ. Effects of repetition and configural changes on the development of face recognition processes. Dev Sci 2004; 7: 469-487.
Itier RJ. Taylor MJ. Face recognition memory and configural processing: A developmental ERP study using upright, inverted, and contrast-reversed faces. J Cogn Neurosci 2004; 16: 487-502.
Gauthier I, Skudlarski P, Gore JC, Anderson AW. Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nat Neurosci 2000; 3: 191-197.
Eimer M. Effects of face inversion on the structural encoding and recognition of faces: Evidence from event-related brain potentials. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2000; 10: 145-158.
Halit H, de Haan M. Johnson MH. Modulation of event-related potentials by prototypical and atypical faces. Neuroreport 2000; 11: 1871–1875.
Boutsen L, Humphreys GW, Praamstra P, Warbrick T. Comparing neural correlates of configural processing of faces and objects: An ERP study of the Thatcher illusion. NeuroImage 2006; 32: 352-367.
Macchi Cassia V, Kuefner D, Westerlund A, Nelson CA. Modulation of face-sensitive event-related potentials by canonical and distorted human faces: the role of vertical symmetry and up-down featural arrangement. J Cogn Neurosci 2006; 18: 1343-1358.
Scott LS. Featural and configural face processing in adults and infants: A behavioral and electrophysiological investigation. Perception 2006; 35: 1107-1128.
Mercure E, Dick F, Johnson MH. Featural and configural face processing differentially modulate ERP components. Brain Res 2008; 1239: 162-170.
Rebai M, Poiroux S, Bernard C. Lalonde R. Event-related potentials for category-specific information during passive viewing of faces and objects.Int. J Neurosci 2001; 106: 209–226.
Rossion B, Gauthier I, Tarr MJ, Despland P, Bruyer R, Linotte S., et al. The N170 occipito-temporal component is delayed and enhanced to inverted faces but not to inverted objects: An electrophysiological accountof face-specific processes in the human brain. NeuroReport 2000; 11: 69-74.
Hobson RP. The autistic child’s appraisal of expressions of emotion: A further study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1986; 27: 671–680.
Happé F, Frith U. The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism DevDisord 2006; 36: 5-25.
Iarocci G, Burack JA, Shore DI, Mottron L,Enns JT. Global-local visual processing in high functioning children with autism: Structural vs. implicit investigate face recognition. Perception 2006; 30; 85-94.
Pellicano E, Gibson L, Maybery M, Durkin K. Badcock DR. Abnormal global processing along the dorsal pathway in autism: A possible mechanism for weak visuospatial coherence? Neuropsychologia 2005; 43: 1044-1053.
Plaisted K, Swettenham J, Rees L. Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999; 40: 733–742.
Batty M, Taylor MJ. The development of emotional face processing during childhood. Dev Sci 2006; 9: 207-220.