Association of Internet Addiction with Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics of Adolescents

  • Mohammad Effatpanah ORCID School of Medicine, Ziaeian Hospital, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohammad Moharrami ORCID School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • Gilda Rajabi Damavandi ORCID Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mahdi Aminikhah ORCID Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mohammad Hosein Nezhad ORCID Farhangiyan University, Tehran, Iran.
  • Farnaz Khatami ORCID Family Medicine Department, Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Tara Arjmand ORCID Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Heliya Tarighatnia ORCID Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
  • Mir Saeed Yekaninejad ORCID Mail Farhangiyan University, Tehran, Iran.
Keywords:
Adolescent, Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), Internet Addiction, Psychological Characteristics, Youth Self-Report (YSR)

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of internet addiction and its impact on the psychological well-being of adolescents in Tehran, considering the sociodemographic characteristics.
Method: In this cross sectional study, a total of 945 (mean age of 14.85) students (522 boys and 423 girls) were recruited by 2-stage clustering sampling method in 2017. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) were used to measure internet addiction and psychological characteristics, respectively. The data were analyzed using multiple-logistic regression analysis adjusted for internet addiction and sociodemographic variables.
Results: Overall, 20% of the adolescents were internet addicts. Gender, consanguineous marriage, and father’s education level were significantly associated with internet addiction. Regarding emotional and behavioral characteristics, internet addiction was significantly associated with the scores of internalizing (OR = 5.03; 95% CI: 3.05-8.28) and externalizing problems (OR = 5.84; 95% CI: 3.61-9.43), the total score of empirical scales (OR = 6.51; 95% CI: 3.71-11.6), and all DSM-oriented scales of the YSR (p < 0.001). Except for school performance, other competency scales had no correlations with internet addiction.
Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of the internet addiction and its correlation with emotional and behavioral characteristics, students and their parents should be advised of the detrimental impacts of internet addiction and try to focus on its constructive application.

References

1. Yeo LS, Ang RP, Chong WH, Huan VS. Gender differences in adolescent concerns and emotional well-being: perceptions of Singaporean adolescent students. J Genet Psychol. 2007;168(1):63-80.
2. Achenbach TM, Rescorla L. Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment: Aseba Burlington, VT:; 2001.
3. Jang KS, Hwang SY, Choi JY. Internet addiction and psychiatric symptoms among Korean adolescents. J Sch Health. 2008;78(3):165-71.
4. Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CS, Tang TC, Ko CH. The association between adult ADHD symptoms and internet addiction among college students: the gender difference. Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2009;12(2):187-91.
5. Yoo HJ, Cho SC, Ha J, Yune SK, Kim SJ, Hwang J, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58(5):487-94.
6. Tsitsika A, Janikian M, Schoenmakers TM, Tzavela EC, Olafsson K, Wojcik S, et al. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2014;17(8):528-35.
7. Fisher S. Developing the DSM-IV-DSM-IV criteria to identify adolescent problem gambling in non-clinical populations. J Gambl Stud. 2000;16(2-3):253-73.
8. Ko CH, Yen J-Y, Yen CF, Chen CS, Weng CC, Chen CC. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model. Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2008;11(5):571-6.
9. Anderson KJ. Internet use among college students: An exploratory study. Journal of American College Health. 2001;50(1):21-6.
10. Lin SS, Tsai C-C. Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents. Comput Human Behav. 2002;18(4):411-26.
11. Ko C-H, Yen J-Y, Yen C-F, Chen C-S, Chen C-C. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27(1):1-8.
12. Al-Busaidi Z, Bhargava K, Al-Ismaily A, Al-Lawati H, Al-Kindi R, Al-Shafaee M, et al. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students in Oman. Oman Med J. 2011;26(4):235.
13. Milani L, Osualdella D, Di Blasio P. Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic Internet use in adolescence. Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2009;12(6):681-4.
14. Association AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. BMC Med. 2013;17:133-7.
15. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Karila L, Billieux J. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(25):4026-52.
16. Lin C-Y, Broström A, Nilsen P, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. Psychometric validation of the Persian Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale using classic test theory and Rasch models. Journal of behavioral addictions. 2017;6(4):620-9.
17. Lin C-Y, Ganji M, Pontes HM, Imani V, Broström A, Griffiths MD, et al. Psychometric evaluation of the Persian Internet Disorder Scale among adolescents. J Behav Addict. 2018;7(3):665-75.
18. Lin CY, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. Psychometric evaluation of Persian Nomophobia Questionnaire: Differential item functioning and measurement invariance across gender. J Behav Addict. 2018;7(1):100-8.
19. Modara F, Rezaee-Nour J, Sayehmiri N, Maleki F, Aghakhani N, Sayehmiri K, et al. Prevalence of Internet Addiction in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Addict Health. 2017;9(4):243-52.
20. Ahmadi K. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study. Acta Medica Iranica. 2014;52(6):467-72.
21. Ghassemzadeh L, Shahraray M, Moradi A. Prevalence of internet addiction and comparison of internet addicts and non-addicts in Iranian high schools. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2008;11(6):731-3.
22. Rescorla LA, Bochicchio L, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Almqvist F, Begovac I, et al. Parent-teacher agreement on children's problems in 21 societies. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(4):627-42.
23. Rescorla LA, Ginzburg S, Achenbach TM, Ivanova MY, Almqvist F, Begovac I, et al. Cross-informant agreement between parent-reported and adolescent self-reported problems in 25 societies. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2013;42(2):262-73.
24. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods. 2009;41(4):1149-60.
25. KAKABERAIE K, MOJTABA AA, FEDAEI Z. VALIDATION OF ACHENBAKH'S BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS: PERFORMING THE YOUTH SELF-REPORT SCALE (YSR) FOR 11-18 YEAR-OLDADOLESCENTS ON HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH. 2008;1(4):50-66.
26. Ramezani M, Namiranian N, Salehi M. Validity and reliability of the Chen internet addiction scale. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health. 2012;14(55):45-236.
27. Salehi M, Norozi Khalili M, Hojjat SK, Salehi M, Danesh A. Prevalence of internet addiction and associated factors among medical students from mashhad, iran in 2013. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(5):e17256.
28. Chen S-H, Weng L-J, Su Y-J, Wu H-M, Yang P-F. Development of a Chinese Internet Addiction Scale and Its Psychometric Study. Chinese Journal of Psychology. 2003;45(3):279-94.
29. Bendel RB, Afifi AA. Comparison of stopping rules in forward “stepwise” regression. J Am Stat Assoc. 1977;72(357):46-53.
30. Mickey RM, Greenland S. The impact of confounder selection criteria on effect estimation. Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129(1):125-37.
31. Jorgenson AG, Hsiao RC-J, Yen C-F. Internet addiction and other behavioral addictions. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics. 2016;25(3):509-20.
32. Ko CH, Yen JY, Chen CS, Yeh YC, Yen CF. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(10):937-43.
33. Ko CH, Yen JY, Liu SC, Huang CF, Yen CF. The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(6):598-605.
34. Liu HC, Liu SI, Tjung JJ, Sun FJ, Huang HC, Fang CK. Self-harm and its association with internet addiction and internet exposure to suicidal thought in adolescents. J Formos Med Assoc. 2017;116(3):153-60.
35. Yen JY, Ko CH, Yen CF, Wu HY, Yang MJ. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. J Adolesc Health. 2007;41(1):93-8.
36. Chi X, Lin L, Zhang P. Internet addiction among college students in China: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2016;19(9):567-73.
37. Kawabe K, Horiuchi F, Ochi M, Oka Y, Ueno S. Internet addiction: Prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2016;70(9):405-12.
38. Islam MA, Hossin MZ. Prevalence and risk factors of problematic internet use and the associated psychological distress among graduate students of Bangladesh. Asian J Gambl Issues Public Health. 2016;6(1):11.
39. Tsitsika AK, Tzavela EC, Janikian M, Olafsson K, Iordache A, Schoenmakers TM, et al. Online social networking in adolescence: patterns of use in six European countries and links with psychosocial functioning. J Adolesc Health. 2014;55(1):141-7.
40. Green CL, Walker JMT, Hoover-Dempsey KV, Sandler HM. Parents' motivations for involvement in children's education: An empirical test of a theoretical model of parental involvement. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2007;99(3):532-44.
41. Kim JH, Lau CH, Cheuk K-K, Kan P, Hui HLC, Griffiths SM. Brief report: Predictors of heavy Internet use and associations with health-promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong university students. J Adolesc. 2010;33(1):215-20.
42. van Rooij AJ, Schoenmakers TM, van de Eijnden RJ, van de Mheen D. Compulsive Internet use: the role of online gaming and other internet applications. J Adolesc Health. 2010;47(1):51-7.
Published
2020-02-10
How to Cite
1.
Effatpanah M, Moharrami M, Rajabi Damavandi G, Aminikhah M, Hosein Nezhad M, Khatami F, Arjmand T, Tarighatnia H, Yekaninejad MS. Association of Internet Addiction with Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics of Adolescents. Iran J Psychiatry. 15(1):55-66.
Section
Original Article(s)