Job Burnout and Related Factors among Health Sector Employees
Objective: Job burnout can cause physical and psychological damage and reduce job efficiency, especially in difficult jobs such as health care fields. This study aimed to assess the association between the level of job burnout and some contributing factors among health care providers in Iran.
Method: This study was performed on the data derived from 1807 participants from the first phase of the employees’ health cohort in 2017-2018. The data were collected using as a self-administrated tool utilizing Maslach Burnout Inventory. The questionnaire scores ranged from never to everyday, with 3 levels of burnout as well as burnout itself; then, the scores were categorized as low, moderate, or high. Ordinal logistic regression model was used to adjust ordinal dependent variables.
Results: The mean score of the total burnout was 16.5±7.77 and was associated with work experience and age group (p < 0.001). The components of burnout consisted of emotional exhaustion (8.9± 9.0), depersonalization (23± 2.9), and personal accomplishment (34± 8.6). Emotional exhaustion was related to sex (less among males, OR=0.48) and type of job (less among officials compared to health care staff, OR=0.488). Composite burnout was more common among younger staff (OR= 3.85). Depersonalization was associated with duty shift workers (OR=2.42).
Conclusion: Job burnout is a major concern, and lack of personal accomplishment, as a component of burnout, was highly prevalent among Iranian health care employees. Being a single woman, health care provider, and having more than 20 years of work experience with a duty shift were contributing factors for burnout experience. Monitoring symptoms of burnout and its associated factors in the workplace and proposing an alternative organizational and behavioral system and sharing it with relevant authorities may help prevent or reduce job burnout and its deleterious effects.
2. Crawford ER, LePine JA, Rich BL. Linking job demands and resources to engagement and burnout: A theoretical extension and meta-analytic test. J Appl Psychol. 2010; 95(5):834-48.
3. Embriaco N, Papazian L, Kentish-Barnes N, Pochard F, Azoulay E.. Burnout syndrome among critical care healthcare workers. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2007; 13(5):482-8.
4. Jaber F, Al-Zoubi M. The Relationship between Work Burnout and Employees' Mental Health as Measured by GHQ-28: A Field Study Using a Sample of University Lecturers. Int J Bus Manag 2012; 7(24): 44-50.
5. Iglesias MEL, de Bengoa Vallejo RB, Fuentes PS. The relationship between experiential avoidance and burnout syndrome in critical care nurses: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010; 47(1):30-7.
6. Allen J, Mellor D. Work context personal control and burnout amongst nurses. West J Nurs Res 2002; 24(8): 905-17.
7. Bakker AB, Costa PL. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis. Burn Res 2014; 1(3):112–9.
8. Jourdain G, Chênevert D. Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: a questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010; 47:709–22.
9. Talaei A, Mohammad Nejad M, Samari AA. Burnout in staffs of health care centers in Mashhad [In Persian]. Q J Fundament Ment Health. 2008; 9:135–44.
10. Portoghese I, Galletta M, Coppola RC, Finco G, Campagna M. Campagna M. Burnout and Workload among Health Care Workers. Saf Health Work. 2014; 5(3): 152–157.
11. Schaufeli WB, Taris TW, van Rhenen W. Workaholism, burnout, and work engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well-being? Appl Psychol 2008; 57(2): 173-203.
12. Shirom A, Melamed S. A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals. Int J Stress Manag, 2006:13(2), 176-200.
13. Aziz Nejad P, Hosseini SJ. Occupational burnout and its causes among practicing nurses in hospitals affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences [In Persian]. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2004; 8:63–9.
14. Piko BF. Burnout, role conflict, job satisfaction and psychosocial health among Hungarian health care staff: A questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006;43(3):311-8.
15. Fletcher CE. Hospital RNs’ job satisfactions and dissatisfactions. J Nurs Adm 2001; 31 (6):324–31.
16. Soori H, Alipour A, Akbari ME, Argani H, et al. A review on Health Cohort Study of Employees in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU Cohort) [In Persian]. Pejouhandeh 2017; 21(6):346-355
17. Amiri M, Khosravi A, Eghtesadi AR, Sadeghi Z, Abedi G, Ranjbar M, et al. Burnout and its Influencing Factors among Primary HealthCare. Providers in the North East of Iran. PLOS ONE 2016; 11(12): e0167648.
18. Organization WHO. Primary prevention of mental, neurological and psychosocial disorders 1998: 91–108.
19. Khajeoddin N, Shoshtari M, Hajebi A. The relationship between understanding the control center and the burnout syndrome among nurses working in a psychiatric hospital [In Persian]. Psychiat Clin Psychol 2004; 12:43-8.
20. Abdi M, kavianei FH, khaghanizadeh M. The relationship between burnout and mental health among nurses [In Persian]. Tehran university Medical Journal. 2007; 65(6): 65-75.
21. Hirut A. (2015) Prevalence of nurses’ burnout and its determinant factors in public hospitals, Addis Ababa. AAU Institutional Repository.
22. Matin BK, Ahmadi S, Irandoost SF, Babasafari N, Rezaei S. The prevalence of burnout and the association with type of capital among female nurses in west of Iran. Joundishapour J Health Sci 2014; 6(13).
23. Garrosa E, Moreno-Jiménez B, Rodríguez-Muñoz A, Rodríguez-Carvajal R. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: A cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011; 48(4):479-89.
24. Williams S, Zipp GP, Cahill T, Parasher RK. Prevalence of burnout among doctors of chiropractic in the Northeastern United States. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2013; 36(6):376-84.
25. Kanel V, Bellingrath RS and Kudielka BN. Association between burnout and circulating levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in school teachers. J Psychosom Res. 2008;65(1):51-9.
26. Rashidi V, Foroghanand M, Hosseini A. Burnout and related demographic variables among Tehran Welfare Organization staff [In Persian]. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2012; 16(1): 28-36.
27. Boyas J, Wind LH, Kang SY. Exploring the relationship between employment-based social capital, job stress, burnout, and intent to leave among child protection workers: An age-based path analysis model. Child Youth Serve Rev 2012; 34(1): 50–62.
28. Zewdu T, Abera H, Abebe N, Mulugeta H , Dessie G. Level of burnout and associated factors among nurses working in public health institutions north shoa zone, Amhara, Ethiopia. Int J Soc Relevance &Concern 2017; 5(8): 17-26.
29. Mohammadpoorasl A, Maleki A, and Sahebihagh MH. Prevalence of professional burnout and its related factors among nurses in Tabriz in 2010. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012; 17(7):524-9.
30. Schadenhofer P, Kundi M, Abrahamian H, Stummer H, Kautzky-Willer A. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Australian cross sectional study. Scand J Caring 2018; 32: 335-45.
31. Bolanle O. Occupational Burnout Among Employees in Some Service Occupations in Nigeria: Are Health Workers Different? Psychological Thought. 2013; 6(1).
32. Scribà-Agüir V, Martín-Baena D, Pérez-Hoyos S. Psychosocial work environment and burnout among emergency medical and nursing staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2006; 80: 127-33.
33. Demir A, Ulusoy M, Ulusoy MF. Investigation of factors influencing burnout levels in the professional and private lives of nurses. Int J Nurs Stud 2003; 40: 807-27.
34. Woodhead EL, Northrop L, Edelstein B. Stress, social support and burnout among long-term care nursing staff. J Appl Gerontol. 2016; 35: 84-105.
35. Rezaei J, Naderi SH, Mahmodi E, Changiz Rezaei S, Hashemian AH. Job Burnout Rate and Related Demographic Factors in Nursing Personnel Employed in Emergency Departments of Chosen Educational Hospitals by Kermanshah University of Medical Science in 2012. Advan Biol Res. 2015; 9(2):117-27.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.