Addiction Recovery: A Systematized Review
Objective: Despite the fact that a practical definition of addiction recovery is necessary to conduct an appropriate intervention and research, this concept is still vague and there is no consensus over its meaning and how to measure it. Thus, this study aimed to define and clarify this concept based on the available literature.
Method: The theoretical part of Schwartz_Barcott and Kim’s Hybrid Model of concept analysis was used to analyze the concept of “Addiction Recovery.” To find the relevant literature, an electronic search on valid databases was conducted using keywords related to the concept of addiction recovery. Medlib, IranMedex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Pro Quest, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid, and Wiley databases were searched up to December 2018 without a time limitation using the following keywords: “Substance use disorders”, “Drug use”, “Recovery”, “Opioids”, “Addiction treatment”, “Dependency”, “Rehabilitation”, Remission”, “Concept analysis”, “Restore”, “Definition”, “Meaning”, and “Conceptualization”. The Conventional content analysis was used on selected research articles.
Results: From a total of 9520 articles, 39 were reviewed and analyzed. Five attributes were selected, including the process of change, being holistic, being client-centric, learning healthy coping, and being multistage. Antecedents are organized into 2 interacting categories: personal and social resources. Personal resources refer to the person, his/her addiction, and the treatment characteristics, while social resources refer to the family, the community, and the context resources. Addiction recovery leads to sustained abstinence, improved physical and psychological health, improved quality of life and satisfaction, meaningful living, and citizenship.
Conclusion: These findings may form a basis for the theories, scales, and criteria for the assessment of addiction recovery and will be useful in clinical practices and research. Also, these findings could help health care professionals to understand the concept of addiction recovery, which is important in improving the recovering person in all aspects of rehabilitation. We will report the implementation and analytical phase of this research project, namely, “the addiction recovery concept analysis” in Iran.
2. Rahimi Movaghar A, Sharifi V, Mohammadi M, Sahimi Izadian E, Rad Goodarzi R, Mansouri N. Researches on substance use in Iran 3 decades evaluation. Hakim Research Journal. 2006;8(4):37-44.
3. Sterling R, Slusher C, Weinstein S. Measuring recovery capital and determining its relationship to outcome in an alcohol dependent sample. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2008;34(5):603-10.
4. Panel TBFIC. What is recovery? A working definition from the Betty Ford Institute. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2007;33(3):221-8.
5. El-Guebaly N. The Meanings of Recovery From Addiction Evolution and Promises. Journal of addiction medicine. 2012;6(1):1-9.
6. Neale J, Finch E, Marsden J, Mitcheson L, Rose D, Strang J, et al. How should we measure addiction recovery? Analysis of service provider perspectives using online Delphi groups. Drug-Educ Prev Polic. 2014;21(4):310-23.
7. Alexandre B. Laudet P. The Road to Recovery: Where are we going and how do we get there? Empirically-driven conclusions and future directions for service development and research. Subst Use Misuse. 2008;43(12-13):2001-20.
8. Best D, Beckwith M, Haslam C, Haslam SA, Jetten J, Mawson E, et al. Overcoming alcohol and other drug addiction as a process of social identity transition: the social identity model of recovery (SIMOR). Addict Res Theory. 2016;24(2):111-23.
9. Kaskutas LA, Borkman TJ, Laudet A, Ritter LA, Witbrodt J, Subbaraman MS, et al. Elements that define recovery: The experiential perspective. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2014;75(6):999-1010.
10. Laudet AB. What does recovery mean to you? Lessons from the recovery experience for research and practice. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007;33(3):243-56.
11. Dodge K, Krantz B, Kenny PJ. How can we begin to measure recovery? Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2010;5:31.
12. Galanter M. Spirituality and recovery in 12-step programs: An empirical model. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007;33(3):265-72.
13. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration( SAMHSA) . A report required by Congress on performance partnerships, . Washington, DC. 2005.
14. Kaskutas LA, Witbrodt J, Grella CE. Recovery definitions: Do they change? Drug and alcohol dependence. 2015;154:85-92.
15. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
16. Merriam-Webster Inc. Webster's dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. Smith-mark Publishers. 1996: 443.
17. White W. Recovery: Its History and Renaissance as an Organizing Construct Concerning Alcohol and Other Drug Problems Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly. 2005;23(1):3-15.
18. White W. Language and recovery advocacy: Why we worry about the words. Recovery Rising: Quarterly Journal of The Faces and Voices of Recovery. 2007:1-3.
19. Galanter M. Spirituality and recovery in 12-step programs: An empirical model. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2007;33(3):265-72.
20. White W, Kurtz E. The varieties of recovery experience. International Journal of Self Help and Self Care. 2006;3(1-2):21-61.
21. Best D, Gow J, Taylor A, Knox A, White W. Recovery from heroin or alcohol dependence: A qualitative account of the recovery experience in Glasgow. Journal of Drug Issues. 2011;41(3):359-77.
22. Davidson L, White W. The Concept of Recovery as an Organizing Principle for Integrating Mental Health and Addiction Services. The journal of behavioral health services & research. 2007;34(2):109-20.
23. Elswick A, Fallin-Bennett A, Ashford K, Werner-Wilson R. Emerging adults and recovery capital: Barriers and facilitators to recovery. J Addict Nurs. 2018;29(2):78-83.
24. Grant J. Rural women's stories of recovery from addiction. Addict Res Theory. 2007;15(5):521-41.
25. Laudet AB, Savage R, Mahmood D. Pathways to Long-Term Recovery: A Preliminary Investigation. Journal of psychoactive drugs. 2002;34(3):305-11.
26. Kearney MH. Truthful self-nurturing: A grounded formal theory of women's addiction recovery. Qualitative Health Research. 1998;8(4):495-512.
27. Witbrodt J, Kaskutas LA, Grella CE. How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals? Five typologies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;148:109-17.
28. Haroosh E, Freedman S. Posttraumatic growth and recovery from addiction. Eur J Psychotraumato. 2017;8(1):1369832.
29. Laudet AB, White WL. Recovery capital as prospective predictor of sustained recovery, life satisfaction, and stress among former poly-substance users. SUBST USE MISUSE. 2008;43(1):27-54.
30. Jury A, Smith M. Measuring Recovery in adult community addiction services. New Zealand Journal of Psychology (Online). 2016;45(1):13-9.
31. Galanter M, Dermatis H, Bunt G, Williams C, (and its relevance to addiction treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007;33(3):257-64.
32. White W, Laudet A, Becker J. Life meaning and purpose in addiction recovery. Addict Prof. 2006;7:56-9.
33. Neale J, Tompkins C, Wheeler C, Finch E, Marsden J, Mitcheson L, et al. “You’re all going to hate the word ‘recovery’by the end of this”: Service users’ views of measuring addiction recovery. Drug-Educ Prev Polic. 2015;22(1):26-34.
34. White WL. The mobilization of community resources to support long-term addiction recovery. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2009;36(2):146-58.
35. O’Sullivan D, Watt JR. Recovery Capital and Quality of Life in Stable Recovery From Addiction. Rehabil Couns Bull. 2017;00(0):1-13.
36. Rodgers b, knafl kA. Concept development in nursing : foundations, techniques, and applications. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000.
37. Cano I, Best D, Edwards M, Lehman J. Recovery capital pathways: Modelling the components of recovery wellbeing. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;181:11-9.
38. Abedi H, Rizi MN, Nasrollah AM, Ghodoosi A, Navidian A. Addiction abstinence as an accessible experience: A phenomenological study. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction. 2017;6(1).
39. Long W, Vaughn C. "I've had too much done to my heart": The dilemma of addiction and recovery as seen through seven youngsters' lives. J Drug Educ. 1999;29(4):309-22.
40. Law FM, Guo GJ. Hope and recovery from substance abuse for female drug offenders in Taiwan. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2012;56(8):1258-82.
41. Chen G. Social support, spiritual program, and addiction recovery. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2006;50(3):306-23.
42. Laudet AB, Morgen K, White WL. The role of social supports, spirituality, religiousness, life meaning and affiliation with 12-step fellowships in quality of life satisfaction among individuals in recovery from alcohol and drug problems. Alcohol Treat Q. 2006;24(1-2):33-73.
43. Duffy P, Baldwin H. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy. 2013;8(1):6.
44. Neale J, Panebianco D, Finch E, Marsden J, Mitcheson L, Rose D, et al. Emerging consensus on measuring addiction recovery: Findings from a multi-stakeholder consultation exercise. Drug-Educ Prev Polic. 2016;23(1):31-40.
45. Shinebourne P, Smith JA. Images of addiction and recovery: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experience of addiction and recovery as expressed in visual images. Drug-Educ Prev Polic. 2011;18(5):313-22
46. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. Measuring Recovery from Substance Use or Mental Disorders: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2016.
47. Neale J, Panebianco D, Finch E, Marsden J, Mitcheson L, Rose D, et al. Emerging consensus on measuring addiction recovery: findings from a multi-stakeholder consultation exercise. Drugs: education, prevention and policy. 2016;23(1):31-40.
48. Groshkova T, Best D, White W. The Assessment of Recovery Capital: Properties and psychometrics of a measure of addiction recovery strengths. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013;32(2):187-94.
49. Notley C, Blyth A, Maskrey V, Pinto H, Holland R. Exploring the concepts of abstinence and recovery through the experiences of long-term opiate substitution clients. Substance Abuse. 2015;36(2):232-9.
50. Kelly JF, Hoeppner B. A biaxial formulation of the recovery construct. Addict Res Theory. 2015;23(1):5-9.