Original Article

Efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Compared to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Anger and Interpersonal Relationships of Male Students

Abstract

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) compared to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on anger and interpersonal relationships among male students. Method: In the present study, several universities were selected from the public universities in Tehran province, based on random cluster sampling. Then, 400 students from selected universities were selected randomly and Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered on them. After collecting information, among the participants who gained scores higher than the average, 30 were selected based on the lottery and randomly (sorting their names in alphabetical order and randomly selecting them) and then were placed randomly in ACT (n = 15) and CBT (n = 15) groups. Also, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relation Orientation- Behavior (FIRO-B) and Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) was performed on both groups before and after intervention.

Results: The results indicated that at the end of treatment, there was a significant decrease in the degree of anger among the participants and a significant improvement in all subscales of interpersonal relationships. Also, a significant difference was found between the 2 groups of ACT and CBT in terms of anger changes. Considering that the anger changes in the ACT group were higher, it can be concluded that the ACT group had more changes than the CBT group, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups of ACT and CBT in terms of FIRO-B subscales.

Conclusion: In some cases, such as anger, ACT has a better effect than CBT, and in others, such as interpersonal problems, it is as effective as CBT.

1. Spielberger C, Jacobs G, Russell S, Crane R. Assessment of anger: The state-trait anger scale. Advances in personality assessment. 1983;2:161-89.
2. Warshaw LJ, Messite J. Workplace violence: preventive and interventive strategies. J Occup Environ Med. 1996;38(10):993-1006.
3. Ramírez JM, Andreu JM. Aggression, and some related psychological constructs (anger, hostility, and impulsivity); some comments from a research project. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(3):276-91.
4. Steffen AM. Anger management for dementia caregivers: A preliminary study using video and telephone interventions. Behavior Therapy. 2000;31(2):281-99.
5. Hawton K, Kirk j, Salkowskis P, Clark D. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Vol. 1) A practical guide to the treatment of psychiatric disorders:Tehran;2014. (Persian)
6. Wright J, Basco M, Thase M. Learning Cognitive-Behavior Therapy:Tehran;2017. (Persian)
7. Kazemeini T, Qnbry B, Modares Garavi M, Esmaili Zade M. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group therapy in reducing anger and aggression drive. J Clin Psychol. 2011;3(2):1-11. (Persian)
8. Berkowitz L. Frustration-aggression hypothesis: examination and reformulation. Psychol Bull. 1989;106(1):59-73.
9. Shakibai F, Tehrani Dost M, Shahrivar Z, Asari Sh. management group therapy, cognitive - behavioral juvenile institution. Recent Adv Cogn Sci. 2004;1: 59-65. (Persian)
10. Shokouhi Yekta M, Zamani N, Mahmoudi M, Pourkarimi J, Akbari Zardkhaneh S. The effect of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions on control anger at high school students. J Clin Psychol and Personal. 2015;2(11):61-70. (Persian)
11. Ghasmzadeh A, Jani S. The effectiveness of group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with problem solving training on anger self-regulation and feeling of loneliness. Though Behav Clin Psycho.2013;29(8):67-89. (Persian)
12. Ansari M, Borjaili A, Ahadi H, Hosseini Almadani S. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBT) on reducing anger among students. The 4st of University Student’s Mental Health:Iran; 2008.
13. Beck R, Fernandez E. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-analysis. Cognitive therapy and research. 1998;22(1):63-74.
14. Del Vecchio T, O'Leary KD. Effectiveness of anger treatments for specific anger problems: a meta-analytic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2004;24(1):15-34.
15. DiGuiseppe R, Tafrate RC. Anger treatment for adults: A meta-analytic review. Clin Psycho: Sci Pract. 2003;10: 70–84.
16. Edmondson C, Conger J. A review of treatment efficacy for individuals with anger problems: Conceptual, assessment and methodological issues. Clin Psych Rev.1996;16:251–275.
17. Wright S, Day A, Howells K. Mindfulness and the treatment of anger problems. Aggress Violent Behav. 2009; 14: 396–401.
18. Hayes SC, Strosahl KD. A practical guide to acceptance and commitment therapy:Springer Science & Business Media;2004.
19. Hayes SC. Climbing our hills: A beginning conversation on the comparison of ACT and traditional CBT. Clin Psychol.2008;15: 286–295.
20. Hayes SC, Luoma JB, Bond FW, Masuda A, Lillis J. Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(1):1-25.
21. Eifert GH, Forsyth JP. The application of acceptance and commitment therapy to problem anger. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2011;18(2):241-50.
22. Dousti P, Gholami S, Torabian S. The effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on aggression among students with internet addiction. J Health Care. 2016;18(1): 63-72. (Persian)
23. Samadi Roshan S, Jafari D, editors. The effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment-Based Treatment (ACT) on the reduction of student's verbal aggression. 3st World Conference on Psychology and Educational Sciences, Law and Social Sciences at the Beginning of the Third Millennium. Iran.
24. Chang D, Hwang S. The development of anger management program based on acceptance and commitment therapy for youth taekwondo players. J Exerc Rehabil. 2017;13(2):160-7.
25. Horowitz LM, Rosenberg SE, Baer BA, Ureño G, Villaseñor VS. Inventory of interpersonal problems: psychometric properties and clinical applications. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56(6):885-92.
26. McKay M, Lev A, Skeen M. Acceptance and commitment therapy for interpersonal problems: Using mindfulness, acceptance, and schema awareness to change interpersonal behaviors: New Harbinger Publications; 2012.
27. Lipsitz JD, Markowitz JC. Mechanisms of change in interpersonal therapy (IPT). Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(8):1134-47.
28. Bolger N, DeLongis A, Kessler RC, Schilling EA. Effects of daily stress on negative mood. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;57(5):808-18.
29. American Psychiatric Association. Quick reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR:Washington; 2000.
30. Nowroozi M, Zargar F, Akbari H. Assessing the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on reducing interpersonal problems and student avoidance. J Research in Behavioral Sciences. 1396; 15 (2): 174-1
31. Anfuso D. Deflecting Workplace violence. Pers J. 1994; 73: 66–77.
32. Paul RJ, Townsend JB. Violence in the workplace—a review with recommendations. Employee responsibilities and rights journal. 1998;11(1):1-14.
33. Bethesda LM, Joint M, Connell D, Joint M. Aggressive Driving: Three Studies: New York Avenue; 1997.
34. Cox DL, Stabb SD, Hulgus JF. Anger and depression in girls and boys: A study of gender differences. Psychol Women Q. 2000;24(1):110-2.
35. Levant RF. Men and emotions: A psychoeducational approach:Newbridge Communication; 1997.
36. Campbell A. Men, women, and aggression: Basic Books;1993.
37. Echeburúa E, Fernández-Montalvo J, Amor PJ. Psychological treatment of men convicted of gender violence: a pilot study in Spanish prisons. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2006;50(1):57-70.
38. Howells K, Day A, Williamson P, Bubner S, Jauncey S, Parker A, et al. Brief anger management programs with offenders: Outcomes and predictors of change. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology. 2005;16(2):296-311.
39. Taylor JL, Novaco RW, Gillmer B, Thorne I. Cognitive-behavioural treatment of anger intensity among offenders with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2002;15:151–165.
40. Taylor JL, Novaco RW, Gillmer BT, Robertson A, Thorne I. Individual cognitive-behavioural anger treatment for people with mild-borderline intellectual disabilities and histories of aggression: a controlled trial. Br J Clin Psychol. 2005;44:367-82.
41. Galovski TE, Blanchard EB. The effectiveness of a brief psychological intervention on court-referred and self-referred aggressive drivers. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40(12):1385-1402.
42. Reilly PM, Shopshire MS. Anger management group treatment for cocaine dependence: preliminary outcomes. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2000;26(2):161-77.
43. Attwood T. Cognitive behaviour therapy for children and adults with Asperger's syndrome. Behav Change. 2004;21(3):147-61.
44. Foret MM, Eaton P. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Anger Group. Kaiser Permanent Department of Psychiatry Vallejo Medical Center Vallejo, CA. 2014.
45. Shapshir M, Riley PM. Practical Guide to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Anger: Sharafat Publications;2012. (Persian)
46. First M, Williams J, Karg R, Spitzer R. Structured clinical interview for DSM-5—Research version (SCID-5 for DSM-5, research version; SCID-5-RV). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association;2015. p1-94.
47. Buss AH, Perry M. The aggression questionnaire. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992;63(3):452-9.
48. Farmani, M. The Effect of Aggressive Behavior on Marital Adjustment. Master Thesis in Psychology:Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran;2005.
49. Schutz WC. FIRO: A three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior. Oxford, England: Rinehart, 1958.
50. Ahanchian M, Amiri R, Bakhshi M. Investigating the correlation between cultural intelligence and social interaction in nurses. Health Promotion Management. 2012; 1(2):44-53.
51. Setareh Forouzan A, Mohammadkhani P, Hoshyari Z, Abbasi A. Psychometric Coordinates of Structured Clinical Interviews for Psychological Disorders of Statistical and Diagnostic Booklet Version 5 and its Clinical Application in Iran. Research Project: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences;2019.
52. Shabani, A. Evaluation of Psychometric Specifications of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5, Clinical Version (SCID-5-CV) in the population of patients with psychiatric disorders in Tehran:Iran University of Medical Sciences; 2019.
53. Shokouhi Yekta M, Zamani N, Mahmoudi M, Pourkarimi J, Akbari Zardkhani, S. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Interventions on Anger Control in High School Students. Clin Psychol Personal. 2015; 11: 61-70
54. Hajilo S, Shafiabadi A. Determining the effectiveness of Group Counseling Based on Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions (CBT) on anger control in first high school female students. Scientific Journal of Educational Research. 2016;37(1):1-20.
55. Sedaghat S, Moradi O, Ahmadian H. The effectiveness of anger cognitive behavioral group training on aggression of third grade aggressive female students in Baneh’s high schools. Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad Univesity. 2015;24(4):215-220.
56. Wheatley A, Murrihy R, Van Kessel J, Wuthrich V, Remond L, Tuqiri R, et al. Aggression management training for youth in behaviour schools: A quasi-experimental study. Youth Studies Australia. 2009;28(1):29.
57. Roustaei A, Abolghasemi Sh, Mohammadi Aria A, Saedi S. A comparison effect of training the anger management and medicine cure on aggression in prisoners. New Findings in Psychology. 2012; 7(21): 17-31.
58. Ghasmzadeh A, Jani S. The effectiveness of group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with problem solving training on anger self-regulation and feeling of loneliness. Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology. 2013;29(8): 67-89. (Persian)
59. Samadi Roshan Sh, Jafari D. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment (ACT) Therapy on Student Verbal Aggression;Third World Conference on Psychology and Educational Sciences, Law and Social Sciences at the beginning of the third millennium;1395
60. Soltani S, Right Joe R, Jahani, OA. Efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy for controlling the anger of mothers with autistic children:Third International Conference on Recent Innovations in Psychology, Counseling and Behavioral Sciences;1395.
61. Hossein Mardi AA, Khalatbari J. Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on the Rate of Anger in High School Students in Tehran. Pajouhan Scientific Journal. 2018;16(2):59-66.
62. Dor J. Comparison of ACT with CBT: Cognitive Failure against Reconstruction.(Fayzi A translation);Psychology and Life Advice Center Web Site: 2015 (cited 01 April, 2015).
Files
IssueVol 16 No 1 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Published2021-01-30
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijps.v16i1.5374
Keywords
Anger Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Interpersonal Relationships

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Masoumian S, Ashouri A, Ghomian S, Keshtkar M, Siahkamary E, Vahed N. Efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Compared to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Anger and Interpersonal Relationships of Male Students. Iran J Psychiatry. 16(1):21-29.