The Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affect in the Association of Perceptions of Parenting Styles with Resilience among Adolescents with Addicted Parents

  • Zahra Nikmanesh ORCID Mail Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
  • Noorali Oshtorak ORCID The Education Organization, Zabol, Iran.
  • Mehdi Darvish Molla ORCID Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.
Keywords:
Adolescent, Addicted Parent, Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Perceived Parenting Styles, Resilience

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of positive and negative affect in the association of perceptions of parental involvement, autonomy support, and warmth with resilience among Adolescents with Addicted Parents.
Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 63 Adolescents of Addicted Parents studying in Zahak and Hirman, located in Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran, were selected using convenience sampling method. The participants completed the questionnaires on perceptions of parenting styles, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed via the correlation coefficient and path analysis.
Results: The results showed that the adolescents’ perceived parenting styles were directly and significantly related to positive affect and resilience (P < 0.01). Moreover, the results of the path analysis indicated that mediated by positive affect, the adolescents’ perceived parenting styles predicted resilience indirectly (P < 0.01).
Conclusion: Given the results of this study, perceived parenting styles can directly and indirectly predict resilience. It can be concluded that adolescents’ perceived parenting styles can enhance resilience among them through promoting positive affect.Adolescent

References

1. Fox HB, McManus MA, Arnold KN. Significant multiple risk behaviors among US High School Students. Fact Sheet. 2010;8:202-23.
2. Kumpfer KL. Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents. Pediatrics. 1999;103(5 Pt 2):1128-44.
3. Bakhtiari M, Hatami H, Tavakolifard M. A Comparison of Depression Score Between 12-19 Year Old Adolescents With Addicted Parents and Non-Addicted Parents. Journal of Medical Council of Khorramabad. 2016;1(2):0-.
4. Adib-Hajbaghery M, Karimi R, Karbasi H, Haji-Rezaei M, Aminolroayaee E. Comparing Violence against Women with and Without an Addicted Spouse in Kashan, Iran. Addict Health. 2015;7(1-2):74-81.
5. Cummings EM, Schatz JN. Family conflict, emotional security, and child development: translating research findings into a prevention program for community families. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2012;15(1):14-27.
6. Karki S, Laukkanen E, Länsimies H, Tuomainen T-P, Pietilä A-M. Substance use and associated emotional and behavioral problems in Nepalese adolescents. J Subst Use. 2019;24(3):300-8.
7. Bakhshani N-M, Dahmardei M, Shahraki-Sanavi F, Hosseinbor M, Ansari-Moghaddam A. Substance abuse among high school students in Zahedan. Health Scope. 2014;3(1):e14805.
8. Weiland BJ, Nigg JT, Welsh RC, Yau WY, Zubieta JK, Zucker RA, et al. Resiliency in adolescents at high risk for substance abuse: flexible adaptation via subthalamic nucleus and linkage to drinking and drug use in early adulthood. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36(8):1355-64.
9. Fergus S, Zimmerman MA. Adolescent resilience: a framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:399-419.
10. Arce E, Simmons AN, Stein MB, Winkielman P, Hitchcock C, Paulus MP. Association between individual differences in self-reported emotional resilience and the affective perception of neutral faces. J Affect Disord. 2009;114(1-3):286-93.
11. Pinquart M. Moderating effects of dispositional resilience on associations between hassles and psychological distress. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2009;30(1):53-60.
12. Cuomo C, Sarchiapone M, Giannantonio MD, Mancini M, Roy A. Aggression, impulsivity, personality traits, and childhood trauma of prisoners with substance abuse and addiction. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2008;34(3):339-45.
13. Buckner JC, Mezzacappa E, Beardslee WR. Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: the role of self-regulatory processes. Dev Psychopathol. 2003;15(1):139-62.
14. Kay SA. Emotion regulation and resilience: overlooked connections. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2016;9(2):411-5.
15. Carlton BS, Goebert DA, Miyamoto RH, Andrade NN, Hishinuma ES, Makini GK, Jr., et al. Resilience, family adversity and well-being among Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006;52(4):291-308.
16. Kritzas N, Grobler AA. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience during adolescence. J Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2005;17(1):1-12.
17. Fisher JH, Bobek M, Hogue A. Family-based treatments for substance abuse. APA handbook of contemporary family psychology: Family therapy and training, Vol 3: American Psychological Association; 2019. p. 89-105.
18. Calafat A, García F, Juan M, Becoña E, Fernández-Hermida JR. Which parenting style is more protective against adolescent substance use? Evidence within the European context. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;138:185-92.
19. Piko BF, Balázs M. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking. Addict Behav. 2012;37(3):353-6.
20. Zakeri H, Jowkar B, Razmjoee M. Parenting styles and resilience. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010;5:1067-70.
21. Montgomery C, Fisk JE, Craig L. The effects of perceived parenting style on the propensity for illicit drug use: the importance of parental warmth and control. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008;27(6):640-9.
22. Bahr SJ, Hoffmann JP. Parenting style, religiosity, peers, and adolescent heavy drinking. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2010;71(4):539-43.
23. Im-Bolter N, Yaghoub Zadeh Z, Ling D. Early parenting beliefs and academic achievement: the mediating role of language. Early Child Development and Care. 2013;183(12):1811-26.
24. Ennett ST, Foshee VA, Bauman KE, Hussong A, Cai L, Reyes HL, et al. The social ecology of adolescent alcohol misuse. Child Dev. 2008;79(6):1777-91.
25. Crawford LA, Novak KB. Parent–child relations and peer associations as mediators of the family structure–substance use relationship. J Fam Issues. 2008;29(2):155-84.
26. Botzet AM, Dittel C, Birkeland R, Lee S, Grabowski J, Winters KC. Parents as interventionists: Addressing adolescent substance use. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019;99:124-33.
27. Cleveland MJ, Feinberg ME, Bontempo DE, Greenberg MT. The role of risk and protective factors in substance use across adolescence. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(2):157-64.
28. Heaven P, Ciarrochi J. Parental styles, gender and the development of hope and self‐esteem. Eur J Pers. 2008;22(8):707-24.
29. Lancaster BD. The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between parenting practices and hope 2018.
30. Milevsky A, Schlechter M, Netter S, Keehn D. Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. J Child Fam Stud. 2007;16(1):39-47.
31. Abad NS, Sheldon KM. Parental autonomy support and ethnic culture identification among second-generation immigrants. J Fam Psychol. 2008;22(4):652-7.
32. Kocayörük E, Altıntas E, İçbay MA. The perceived parental support, autonomous-self and well-being of adolescents: a cluster-analysis approach. J Child Fam Stud. 2015;24(6):1819-28.
33. Buschgens CJ, van Aken MA, Swinkels SH, Ormel J, Verhulst FC, Buitelaar JK. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19(7):567-75.
34. Wolfradt U, Hempel S, Miles JN. Perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in adolescents. Pers Individ Dif. 2003;34(3):521-32.
35. Nijhof KS, Engels RC. Parenting styles, coping strategies, and the expression of homesickness. J Adolesc. 2007;30(5):709-20.
36. Kazemi A, Ardabili HE, Solokian S. The association between social competence in adolescents and mothers’ parenting style: A cross sectional study on Iranian girls. Child Adolesc Social Work J. 2010;27(6):395-403.
37. Lavasani MG, Borhanzadeh S, Afzali L, Hejazi E. The relationship between perceived parenting styles, social support with psychological well-being. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;15:1852-6.
38. García F, Gracia E. Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families. Adolescence. 2009;44(173):101-31.
39. Wong MM. Perceptions of parental involvement and autonomy support: Their relations with self-regulation, academic performance, substance use and resilience among adolescents. North American Journal of Psychology. 2008;10(3):497-518.
40. Robbins RJ. An assessment of perceived parental autonomy-support and control: child and parent correlates: Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Rochester.; 1994.
41. Morris AS, Silk JS, Steinberg L, Myers SS, Robinson LR. The Role of the Family Context in the Development of Emotion Regulation. Soc Dev. 2007;16(2):361-88.
42. Aka BT, Gencoz T. Perceived Parenting Styles, Emotion Recognition and Regulation in Relation to Psychological Well-being. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;159:529-33.
43. Furnham A, Cheng H. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2000;35(10):463-70.
44. Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;86(2):320-33.
45. Zautra AJ, Johnson LM, Davis MC. Positive affect as a source of resilience for women in chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73(2):212-20.
46. Nikmanesh Z, Baluchi MH, Motlagh AAP. The Role of Social Support and Positive Affect on Prediction of Addiction Relapse. Annals of Military & Health Sciences Research. 2015;13(3):98-102.
47. Utsey SO, Hook JN, Fischer N, Belvet B. Cultural orientation, ego resilience, and optimism as predictors of subjective well-being in African Americans. J Posit Psychol. 2008;3(3):202-10.
48. Segovia F, Moore JL, Linnville SE, Hoyt RE, Hain RE. Optimism predicts resilience in repatriated prisoners of war: A 37‐year longitudinal study. J Trauma Stress. 2012;25(3):330-6.
49. Wang L, Shi Z, Li H. Neuroticism, extraversion, emotion regulation, negative affect and positive affect: The mediating roles of reappraisal and suppression. Soc Behav Pers. 2009;37(2):193-4.
50. Strand EB, Zautra AJ, Thoresen M, Ødegård S, Uhlig T, Finset A. Positive affect as a factor of resilience in the pain-negative affect relationship in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Psychosom Res. 2006;60(5):477-84.
51. Burns R, Anstey K. The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Testing the invariance of a uni-dimensional resilience measure that is independent of positive and negative affect. Pers Individ Dif. 2010;48(5):527-31.
52. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling 2nd ed. New York: Guilford. 2005;3.
53. Reshvanloo FT, Hejazi E. Perceived parenting styles, academic achievement and academic motivation: A causal model. Int J Educ & Appl Sci. 2014;1(2):94-100.
54. Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(2):76-82.
55. Zarifi M, Honari H, BahrolOloum H. Psychometrics Properties and Normalization of Persian Version of Resiliency Questionnaire Among Athletes and Non-athletes Students. Sport Psy Stud. 2016;5(15):131-50.
56. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1988;54(6):1063-70.
57. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40(3):879-91.
Published
2020-09-12
How to Cite
1.
Nikmanesh Z, Oshtorak N, Darvish Molla M. The Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Affect in the Association of Perceptions of Parenting Styles with Resilience among Adolescents with Addicted Parents. Iran J Psychiatry. 15(4):297-304.
Section
Original Article(s)