Driving Behaviors in Iran: Comparison of Impulsivity, Attentional Bias, and Decision-Making Styles in Safe and High-Risk Drivers
Objective: Road traffic injuries are leading cause of death and economic losses, particularly in developing countries such as Iran. Thus, increased understanding of the causes of traffic accidents can help solve this problem. The primary goal of this study was to examine attentional bias, decision-making styles, and impulsiveness in drivers with safe or risky driving behaviors. The secondary purpose was to determine the variance of each variable among 2 groups of drivers.
Method: This was a cross sectional design study, in which 120 male drivers aged 20-30 years (60 males with risky driving behaviors and 60 with safe driving behaviors) were recruited from Tehran using sampling technique. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Decision-Making Style Scale (DMSQ), Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (MDBQ), Self-Assessment Manikin Scale (SAM), and Dot Probe Task were used. The analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 22.
Results: The mean age of participants was 26 years. Significant differences were found between impulsiveness (attentional, motor, and non planning impulsiveness) and decision-making styles (spontaneous and avoidant) between the 2 groups. Also, based on the results of discriminant function analysis (DFS), the subscales of impulsiveness and 2 decision-making styles explained 25% of the variance in the 2 groups of risky and safe drivers.
Conclusion: Findings of this study indicated that impulsiveness and 2 decision-making styles were predominant factors. Therefore, not only is there a need for research to reduce traffic accidents, but studies can also be helpful in issuing driving licenses to individuals.
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