Social Media Use and Sleep Disturbance among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objective: Recently, social media use has become prevalent in the daily lives of many adolescents. This study was performed to address adolescents’ sleep quality and depression in relation to social media use.
Method: This cross-sectional cluster-sampling study was directed on 576 high school students in 2019 in Hamadan, Iran. Three standard self-reported questionnaires were used for recording sleep patterns (Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index (PSQI)), depression (Beck), and Electronic Media Use. Data was analyzed using SPSS. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as being significant.
Results: Among the adolescents 290 (50.3%) were female and the age median was 17. The average time of all Smart devices used was 7.5±4.4 hours per day. Among all students 62.3 % (359) said that they had their cell phone on in their bedroom when they sleep. In boys, the amount of social media use was significantly more than girls and poor sleep quality had a statically significant relationship with social media use (P-Value = 0.02). Additionally, there was a reverse correlation between the average use of electronic devices and sleep duration (Spearman’s rho = 0.17; P-Value = 0.03), and a direct correlation between the average use in social media and depression (Spearman’s rho = 0.171; P-Value < 0.001).
Conclusion: In this important age group a high level of electronic devices use and its relationship with sleep quality, daily dysfunction, sleep duration and depression is worthy of issue awareness among health managers, parents and teachers for providing interventional programs, based on standard updated guidelines, in order to reduce the problem and familiarize adolescents and their parents, at home or school, with restrictions on using devices to view and participate in social media.
2. Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, Dewald-Kaufmann JF, Grob A. Adolescents' electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(2):405-18.
3. Cains N,Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.sleep medicine.2010;11(8):735-742.
4. Mak KK, Lai CM, Watanabe H, Kim DI, Bahar N, Ramos M, et al. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2014;17(11):720-8.
5. Bhat S, Pinto-Zipp G, Upadhyay H, Polos PG. "To sleep, perchance to tweet": in-bed electronic social media use and its associations with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults. Sleep Health. 2018;4(2):166-73.
6. Kwok SW, Lee PH, Lee RL. Smart Device Use and Perceived Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes among Hong Kong Adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(2):205.
7. Shan Z, Deng G, Li J, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhao Q. Correlational analysis of neck/shoulder pain and low back pain with the use of digital products, physical activity and psychological status among adolescents in Shanghai. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78109.
8. Hysing M, Pallesen S, Stormark KM, Jakobsen R, Lundervold AJ, Sivertsen B. Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study. BMJ open. 2015; 5:e006748.
9. Kwon JH, Chung CS, Lee J. The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of Internet games. Community Ment Health J. 2011;47(1):113-21.
10. Goldstein TR, Bridge JA, Brent DA. Sleep disturbance preceding completed suicide in adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(1):84-91.
11. Bernert RA, Nadorff MR. Sleep Disturbances and Suicide Risk. Sleep Med Clin. 2015;10(1):35-9.
12. Reidy BL, Hamann S, Inman C, Johnson KC, Brennan PA. Decreased sleep duration is associated with increased fMRI responses to emotional faces in children. Neuropsychologia. 2016;84:54-62.
13. Solheim B, Langsrud K, Kallestad H, Engstrøm M, Bjorvatn B, Sand T. Sleep structure and awakening threshold in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder patients compared to healthy sleepers. Sleep Med. 2018;46:61-8.
14. Urrila AS, Kiviruusu O, Haravuori H, Karlsson L, Viertiö S, Suvisaari J, et al. Sleep symptoms and long-term outcome in adolescents with major depressive disorder: a naturalistic follow-up study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019:1-9.
15. Gholamian B, Shahnazi H, Hassanzadeh A. The prevalence of internet addiction and its association with depression, anxiety, and stress, among high-school students. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2017; 5:4763-70.
16. Straker L, Maslen B, Burgess-Limerick R, Johnson P, Dennerlein J. Evidence-based guidelines for the wise use of computers by children: Physical development guidelines. Ergonomics. 2010; 53:458-77.
17. Arrona-Palacios A. High and low use of electronic media during nighttime before going to sleep: A comparative study between adolescents attending a morning or afternoon school shift. J Adolesc. 2017;61:152-63.
18. King DL, Gradisar M, Drummond A, Lovato N, Wessel J, Micic G, et al. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study. J Sleep Res. 2013;22(2):137-43.
19. Nuutinen T, Ray C, Roos E. Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children's sleep habits in a longitudinal study? BMC Public Health. 2013;13:684.
20. Reynolds CM, Gradisar M, Kar K, Perry A, Wolfe J, Short MA. Adolescents who perceive fewer consequences of risk‐taking choose to switch off games later at night. Acta Paediatr. 2015; 104:e222-e7.
21. Yang J, Guo Y, Du X, Jiang Y, Wang W, Xiao D, et al. Association between Problematic Internet Use and Sleep Disturbance among Adolescents: The Role of the Child's Sex. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(12):2682.
22. Wong HY, Mo HY, Potenza MN, Chan MNM, Lau WM, Chui TK, et al. Relationships between Severity of Internet Gaming Disorder, Severity of Problematic Social Media Use, Sleep Quality and Psychological Distress. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):1879.
23. Poorolajal J, Ahmadpoor J, Mohammadi Y, Soltanian AR, Asghari SZ, Mazloumi E. Prevalence of problematic internet use disorder and associated risk factors and complications among Iranian university students: a national survey. Health Promot Perspect. 2019;9(3):207-13.
24. Azizi SM, Soroush A, Khatony A. The relationship between social networking addiction and academic performance in Iranian students of medical sciences: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychol. 2019;7(1):28.
25. Pirdehghan A, Babaveisi S, Panahi S. Direct Relationship Between Sleep Disorder and Depression Severity in Iranian Adolescents. Iran J Pediatr. 2020; 30(6):e103798.
26. Fazlali, M., Farshidi, F. The Study of Cell Phone Use and its Relationship with Sleep Quality and Academic Performance of High School Students. Information and Communication Technology in Educational Sciences, 2016; 6(4(24)): 5-21.
27. Farrahi Moghaddam J, Nakhaee N, Sheibani V, Garrusi B, Amirkafi A. Reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-P). Sleep Breath. 2012;16(1):79-82.
28. de Lijster JM, Dieleman GC, Utens E, Dierckx B, Wierenga M, Verhulst FC, et al. Social and academic functioning in adolescents with anxiety disorders: A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2018;230:108-17.
29. Garmy P, Nyberg P, Jakobsson U. Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children. J Sch Nurs. 2012;28(6):469-76.
30. Van den Bulck J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep. 2004;27(1):101-4.
31. Shochat T, Flint-Bretler O, Tzischinsky O. Sleep patterns, electronic media exposure and daytime sleep-related behaviours among Israeli adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(9):1396-400.
32. Lam LT, Peng ZW, Mai JC, Jing J. Factors associated with Internet addiction among adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2009;12(5):551-5.
33. Tokiya M, Itani O, Otsuka Y, Kaneita Y. Relationship between internet addiction and sleep disturbance in high school students: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr. 2020;20(1):379.
34. Durkee T, Carli V, Floderus B, Wasserman C, Sarchiapone M, Apter A, et al. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(3):294.
35. Lenhart A, Ling R, Campbell S, Purcell K. Teens and mobile phones: Text messaging explodes as teens embrace it as the centerpiece of their communication strategies with friends. Pew Internet & American Life Project. 2010:1-114.
36. Haug S, Castro RP, Kwon M, Filler A, Kowatsch T, Schaub MP. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(4):299-307.
37. Woods HC, Scott H. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. J Adolesc. 2016;51:41-9.
38. Skierkowski D, Wood RM. To text or not to text? The importance of text messaging among college-aged youth. Comput Human Behav. 2012; 28:744-56.
39. Alfano CA, Zakem AH, Costa NM, Taylor LK, Weems CF. Sleep problems and their relation to cognitive factors, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(6):503-12.
40. Fredriksen K, Rhodes J, Reddy R, Way N. Sleepless in Chicago: tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Dev. 2004;75(1):84-95.
41. Cain N, Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review. Sleep Med. 2010;11(8):735-42.
42. Thomée S, Dellve L, Härenstam A, Hagberg M. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:66.
|Issue||Vol 16 No 2 (2021)|
|Adolescent Sleep Disturbance Social Media|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|