Original Article

Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale (WCSS)


Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale among individuals engaged in weight loss or weight maintenance.

Method: This descriptive study conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on social media networks. A total of 420 men and women were selected using consecutive sampling. They completed the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale and the Self-Compassion Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s α, confirmatory factor analysis, and Pearson product-moment correlations.

Results: Internal consistency for the total score of the Persian version of Weight Control Strategies Scale was excellent and acceptable to good for all 4 subscales (in all cases over α = 0.70). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structure of the original model of the scale, but, it was different from the model at the item level. Moreover, the Persian version of Weight Control Strategies Scale had good convergent validity.

Conclusion: Psychometrically speaking, the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess the psychological and behavioral profile of individuals engaging in losing or maintaining weight, both for clinical and research purposes.

1. Sanderson CA. Health psychology: Wiley Global Education; 2012.
2. Butryn ML, Kerrigan S, Arigo D, Raggio G, Forman EM. Pilot Test of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention to Promote Physical Activity During Weight Loss Maintenance. Behav Med. 2018;44(1):77-87.
3. Gregg JA, Lillis J, Schmidt EM. A functional contextual approach to obesity and related problems. Curr Opin Psychol. 2015;2:82-6.
4. Barlow DH, Durand VM, Hofmann SG. Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach. eight ed: Nelson Education; 2018.
5. Organization WH. Data and analysis on overweight and obesity 2019 [Available from: https://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight/en/.
6. Rahimi-Ardabili H, Reynolds R, Vartanian LR, McLeod LVD, Zwar N. A systematic review of the efficacy of interventions that aim to increase self-compassion on nutrition habits, eating behaviours, body weight and body image. Mindfulness. 2018;9(2):388-400.
7. Lillis J, Dahl J, Weineland SM. The diet trap: Feed your psychological needs and end the weight loss struggle using acceptance and commitment therapy: New Harbinger Publications; 2014.
8. Ogden J. Health Psychology: A Textbook: McGraw-Hill Education (UK); 2012.
9. Lillis J, Wing RR. Behavioral Strategies in Weight Management. Treatment of the Obese Patient: Springer; 2014. p. 189-200.
10. O'Neil PM, Currey HS, Hirsch AA, Malcolm RJ, Sexauer JD, Riddle FE, et al. Development and validation of the Eating Behavior Inventory. J Behav Assess. 1979;1(2):123-32.
11. Pinto AM, Fava JL, Raynor HA, LaRose JG, Wing RR. Development and validation of the weight control strategies scale. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(12):2429-36.
12. Wing RR, Marcus MD, Salata R, Epstein LH, Miaskiewicz S, Blair EH. Effects of a very-low-calorie diet on long-term glycemic control in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151(7):1334-40.
13. Harvey-Berino J. Calorie restriction is more effective for obesity treatment than dietary fat restriction. Ann Behav Med. 1999;21(1):35-9.
14. Jakicic JM, Wing RR, Winters-Hart C. Relationship of physical activity to eating behaviors and weight loss in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(10):1653-9.
15. Qi BB, Dennis KE. The adoption of eating behaviors conducive to weight loss. Eat Behav. 2000;1(1):23-31.
16. Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, Janney C. Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(14):1550-9; discussion 9-60.
17. Wing RR, Papandonatos G, Fava JL, Gorin AA, Phelan S, McCaffery J, et al. Maintaining large weight losses: the role of behavioral and psychological factors. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(6):1015-21.
18. Lillis J, Kendra KE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for weight control: Model, evidence, and future directions. J Contextual Behav Sci. 2014;3(1):1-7.
19. Jelalian E, Hadley W, Sato A, Kuhl E, Rancourt D, Oster D, et al. Adolescent weight control: an intervention targeting parent communication and modeling compared with minimal parental involvement. J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(2):203-13.
20. Lillis J, Niemeier HM, Ross KM, Thomas JG, Leahey T, Unick J, et al. Weight loss intervention for individuals with high internal disinhibition: design of the Acceptance Based Behavioral Intervention (ABBI) randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychol. 2015;3(1):17.
21. Ross KM, Wing RR. Impact of newer self-monitoring technology and brief phone-based intervention on weight loss: A randomized pilot study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(8):1653-9.
22. Levin ME, Pierce B, Schoendorff B. The acceptance and commitment therapy matrix mobile app: A pilot randomized trial on health behaviors. J Contextual Behav Sci. 2017;6(3):268-75.
23. Levin ME, Potts S, Haeger J, Lillis J. Delivering acceptance and commitment therapy for weight self-stigma through guided self-help: Results from an open pilot trial. Cogn Behav Pract. 2018;25(1):87-104.
24. Aschbrenner KA, Naslund JA, Gorin AA, Mueser KT, Scherer EA, Viron M, et al. Peer support and mobile health technology targeting obesity-related cardiovascular risk in young adults with serious mental illness: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018;74:97-106.
25. Lillis J, Thomas JG, Olson K, Wing RR. Weight self-stigma and weight loss during behavioural weight loss intervention. Obes Sci Pract. 2019;5(1):21-7.
26. Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000;25(24):3186-91.
27. Myers ND, Ahn S, Jin Y. Sample size and power estimates for a confirmatory factor analytic model in exercise and sport: a Monte Carlo approach. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82(3):412-23.
28. Neff KD. The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity. 2003;2(3):223-50.
29. Hasani J, Pasdar K. The Assessment of Confirmatory Factor Structure, Validity, and Reliability of PersianVersion of Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-P) in Ferdosi University of Mashhah in 2013. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2017;16(8):727-42.
30. ITC Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Tests (Second Edition). Int J Test. 2018;18(2):101-34.
31. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Guilford publications; 2015.
32. Hunsley J, Mash EJ. Developing criteria for evidence-based assessment: An introduction to assessments that work. A guide to assessments that work. 2008:3-14.
33. Finch H, French BF, Immekus JC. Applied psychometrics using SPSS and AMOS: IAP; 2016.
34. Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online. 2003;8(2):23-74.
35. Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992;112(1):155.
36. Terry ML, Leary MR, Mehta S, Henderson K. Self-compassionate reactions to health threats. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013;39(7):911-26.
37. Dunne S, Sheffield D, Chilcot J. Brief report: Self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours. J Health Psychol. 2018;23(7):993-9.
38. Sirois FM, Kitner R, Hirsch JK. Self-compassion, affect, and health-promoting behaviors. Health Psychol. 2015;34(6):661-9.
IssueVol 16 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijps.v16i2.5815
Body Weight Maintenance Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Factor Analysis Psychometrics Statistical Self Report Weight Loss

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Nonahal S, Mohammadkhani S, Hasani J, Akbari M, Sadeghi-Bahmani D. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale (WCSS). Iran J Psychiatry. 16(2):146-153.