Original Article

COVID-19 Fear Association with Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia: A National Web-Based Survey on the General Population


Objective: COVID-19 pandemic has influenced almost every country worldwide. Being in a pandemic situation can cause psychological distress to people, which can lead to sleep disorders. The present study aimed to assess prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among Iranian people and their relations with COVID-19 fear in the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: A cross-sectional and population-based online study was designed. We created an online form and used Fear of COVID-19 scale (FCV-19), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2 scale (GAD-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), to assess fear of COVID-19, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, respectively. We sent the link to the online survey to Iranians interested in participating in the study via social media, and 1223 Iranian completed the form.

Results: A total of 1223 individuals with a mean age of 39.82 ± 10.75 years participated in the study. Prevalence of insomnia, depression and anxiety among our participants were 55.2%, 61.5%, and 50.9%, respectively. The mean FCV-19 score among the participants was 19.70 ± 5.08. Insomnia was more common among those who were 50 years or older. Fear of COVID-19 was related to a more risk of progression toward depression, anxiety, and insomnia.

Conclusion: Fear of COVID-19 has a considerable association with depression, anxiety, and insomnia in the pandemic, and strategies to reasonably decrease people’s fears can help to reduce incidence of psychological issues during the pandemic.Anxiety

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IssueVol 17 No 1 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijps.v17i1.8046
Anxiety COVID-19 Depression Fear Insomnia

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How to Cite
Akbarpour S, Nakhostin-Ansari A, Sadeghniiat Haghighi K, Etesam F, Alemohammad ZB, Aghajani F, Najafi A. COVID-19 Fear Association with Depression, Anxiety, and Insomnia: A National Web-Based Survey on the General Population. Iran J Psychiatry. 2021;17(1):24-34.