Mental Health and Resilience among Nurses in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Objective: Nurses exposed to COVID-19 could be psychologically stressed. The present study investigated the mental health and the resilience level in the nurses’ population.
Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on 432 nurses in 27 hospitals working in Guilan province, north of Iran, between April 29, to May 14, 2020. Mental health and resilience were measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10). Hierarchical multiple linear regression model was used to identify factors associated with mental health.
Results: The mean GHQ-12 and CD-RISC-10 scores were 15.72 (SD, 5.67) and 25.97 (SD, 6.88), respectively. Probable psychological distress (GHQ-12 score ≥ 15) was present in 57.2% of nurses. Among demographic and COVID-19-related variables, only educational level was significantly and negatively correlated with mental health. After controlling the variables, hierarchical regression analyses results showed that lower resilience was associated with poor mental health (β = -0.49; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Regarding the nurses’ mental health, appropriate psychological/psychiatric intervention is necessary, and resilience can play a role as a mental health promoter.
2. Ayanian JZ. Mental health needs of health care workers providing frontline COVID-19 care. JAM Health Forum. 2020; 1(4): e200397
3. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976.
4. Tahghighi M, Rees CS, Brown JA, Breen LJ, Hegney D. What is the impact of shift work on the psychological functioning and resilience of nurses? An integrative review. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(9):2065-83.
5. Gharaati Sotoudeh H, Alavi SS, Akbari Z, Jannatifard F, Artounian V. The Effect of Brief Crisis Intervention Package on Improving Quality of Life and Mental Health in Patients with COVID-19. Iran J Psychiatry. 2020;15(3):205-12.
6. Nakhostin-Ansari A, Sherafati A, Aghajani F, Khonji MS, Aghajani R, Shahmansouri N. Depression and Anxiety among Iranian Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic. Iran J Psychiatry. 2020;15(3):228-35.
7. Sood S. Psychological effects of the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Research Humanities in Medical Education. Res in Med Educa. 2020;7(11):23-6.
8. Mealer M, Jones J, Meek P. Factors Affecting Resilience and Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critical Care Nurses. Am J Crit Care. 2017;26(3):184-92.
9. Kakemam E, Raeissi P, Raoofi S, Soltani A, Sokhanvar M, Visentin D, et al. Occupational stress and associated risk factors among nurses: a cross-sectional study. Contemp Nurse. 2019;55(2-3):237-49.
10. Foster K, Roche M, Delgado C, Cuzzillo C, Giandinoto JA, Furness T. Resilience and mental health nursing: An integrative review of international literature. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2019;28(1):71-85.
11. Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(3):e14.
12. Hassannia L, Taghizadeh F, Moosazadeh M, Zarghami M, Taghizadeh H, Dooki AF, et al. Anxiety and Depression in Health Workers and General Population During COVID-19 in IRAN: A Cross-Sectional Study. Neuropsychopharmacol Rep. 2021;41(1):40-9.
13. Gheshlagh RG, Sayehmiri K, Ebadi A, Dalvandi A, Dalvand S, Maddah SSB, et al. The relationship between mental health and resilience: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran Red Crescent MedJ. 2017;19(6):e13537.
14. Mealer M, Jones J, Meek P. Factors Affecting Resilience and Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Critical Care Nurses. Am J Crit Care. 2017;26(3):184-92.
15. Wu L, Tan Y, Liu Y. Factor structure and psychometric evaluation of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale in a new employee population of China. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):49.
16. Yu F, Raphael D, Mackay L, Smith M, King A. Personal and work-related factors associated with nurse resilience: A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2019;93:129-40.
17. Khoshnazary S, Hosseini M, Fallahi Khoshknab M, Bakhshi E. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence (EI) Training on Nurses' Resiliency in Department of Psychiatry. IranJ of Psychiatri Nurs. 2016;3(4):28-37.
18. Trip H, Tabakakis K, Maskill V, Richardson S, Dolan B, Josland H, et al. Psychological health and resilience: the impact of significant earthquake events on tertiary level professional students. A cross-sectional study. Contemp Nurse. 2018;54(3):319-32.
19. Cooper AL, Brown JA, Rees CS, Leslie GD. Nurse resilience: A concept analysis. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2020;29(4):553-75.
20. Cheung T, Fong TKH, Bressington D. COVID-19 under the SARS Cloud: Mental Health Nursing during the Pandemic in Hong Kong. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2021;28(2):115-7.
21. Zone EaidoAf. About guilan province.invest, anzali.org. 2020
22. . Goldberg, DP & Williams, P. A user's guide to the General Health Questionnaire. London: NFER, Nelson. 1988
23. Mortazavi N. Meta-analysis of relationship between resilience and mental health. J of Ment Health Princ. 2015;17(3):103-8.
24. Keyhani M, Taghvaei D, Rajabi A, Amirpour B. Internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) among nursing female. Iran J of Med Educa. 2015;14(10):857-65.
25. Khanal P, Devkota N, Dahal M, Paudel K, Joshi D. Mental health impacts among health workers during COVID-19 in a low resource setting: a cross-sectional survey from Nepal. Global Health. 2020;16(1):89.
26. Labrague LJ, De Los Santos JAA. COVID-19 anxiety among front-line nurses: Predictive role of organisational support, personal resilience and social support. J Nurs Manag. 2020;28(7):1653-61.
27. De Brier N, Stroobants S, Vandekerckhove P, De Buck E. Factors affecting mental health of health care workers during coronavirus disease outbreaks (SARS, MERS & COVID-19): A rapid systematic review. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0244052.
28. Ríos-Risquez MI, García-Izquierdo M, Sabuco-Tebar EL, Carrillo-Garcia C, Martinez-Roche ME. An exploratory study of the relationship between resilience, academic burnout and psychological health in nursing students. Contemp Nurse. 2016;52(4):430-9.
29. Hu T, Zhang D, Wang J. A meta-analysis of the trait resilience and mental health. Personaland IndividDiffer. 2015;76:18-27.
30. Bozdağ F, Ergün N. Psychological Resilience of Healthcare Professionals During COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychol Rep. 2020:33294120965477. Bozdağ F, Ergün N. Psychological Resilience of Healthcare Professionals During COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychol Rep.2021; 124(6):2567-86.
31. Muller AE, Hafstad EV, Himmels JPW, Smedslund G, Flottorp S, Stensland S, et al. The mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers, and interventions to help them: A rapid systematic review. Psychiatry Res. 2020;293:113441.
32. Sun J, Sun R, Jiang Y, Chen X, Li Z, Ma Z, et al. The relationship between psychological health and social support: Evidence from physicians in China. PLoS One. 2020;15(1):e0228152.
33. Kaveh M, Davari-tanha F, Varaei S, Shirali E, Shokouhi N, Nazemi P, et al. Anxiety levels among Iranian health care workers during the COVID-19 surge: A cross-sectional study. MedRxiv. 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.05.02.20089045v1.
34. Di Tella M, Romeo A, Benfante A, Castelli L. Mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. J Eval Clin Pract. 2020;26(6):1583-7.
35. Parker G, Brotchie H. Gender differences in depression. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2010;22(5):429-36.
36. Alsahafi AJ, Cheng AC. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours of Healthcare Workers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to MERS Coronavirus and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(12):1214.
37. Kameg BN. Psychiatric-mental health nursing leadership during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2021;28(4):507-8.
|Issue||Vol 17 No 1 (2022)|
|COVID-19 Mental Health Nurses Psychological Resilience|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|