Original Article

The Relationship between the Severity of the COVID-19 Disease, Temperament and Psychological Factors


Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic negatively affects public mental health around the world. Individuals’ reactions to COVID-19 vary depending on their temperament, individual differences, and personality traits. Therefore, the current study is conducted to assess the association of demographical features, Persian temperament, and psychological characteristics with the severity of COVID-19.

Method: An online survey was sent to COVID-19 patients to collect their demographic information, COVID-19 symptoms, and clinical data. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DAAS-21) questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Spiel Berger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) , Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), and Persian general and brain temperament Questionnaire were also completed by 258 participants (127 men and 131 women) 45 days after recovery from COVID-19. Non-parametric analysis was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Results showed the significant relationship of demographic factors such as weight, age and gender with the severity of the COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Mean scores of brain temperament (warm/cold) in the severe group were significantly lower than the moderate and mild groups (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the dry/wet temperament of the brain in the severe and moderate groups compared to the mild group (P < 0.05). The results of DASS-21 showed a significantly higher anxiety in patients with severe COVID-19 compared with moderate and mild groups (P < 0.05). The severe group was found to be significantly different compared to moderate group in the results of BDI-II (P < 0.05). The result of STAI (state and trait) showed a significant difference between the severe group and the mild and moderate groups. The score of PSQI between the moderate and mild groups was significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results indicate the relationship between demographic factors such as weight, age and gender, brain temperament, as well as some psychological factors such as sleep quality and anxiety with the severity of the COVID-19 disease.

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IssueVol 17 No 4 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijps.v17i4.10696
COVID-19 Demographic Factors Psychological Factors Severity Temperament

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How to Cite
Afzali A, Sahraei H, Hatef B, Meftahi GH, Shayad S, Pirzad Jahromi G. The Relationship between the Severity of the COVID-19 Disease, Temperament and Psychological Factors. Iran J Psychiatry. 2022;17(4):462-468.