The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): ‎Development, Validity and Reliability

  • Sepideh Bakht Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran Neurocognitive Laboratory, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Tahereh Mahdavi Haji Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran
  • Ensiyeh Ghasemian Shirvan‎ Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran
  • Hamed Ekhtiari Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Sciences Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran Neurocognitive Laboratory, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Keywords:
Behavioral Activation, Iran, Pleasant ‎Events, Pleasant Events Schedule, ‎Reliability, Validity

Abstract

Objective: Experiencing ‎pleasant events during daily life ‎has a significant positive role in ‎the personal mental health and ‎acts as a keystone for “behavioral ‎activation” (BA) interventions. ‎There are serious differences in ‎the pleasant event schedules in ‎different cultures and countries. ‎We aimed to develop a Persian ‎checklist of pleasant events ‎‎(PCPE) to provide and validate a ‎culturally compatible checklist for ‎Iranians.‎
Methods: To develop a checklist ‎of pleasant events, inspired by ‎Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) ‎‎(MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, ‎‎1982), we held three focused ‎group discussions with 24 normal ‎healthy participants from both ‎genders (female = 12) and asked ‎them to mention as much ‎pleasant events as possible. ‎When the list reached saturation ‎level, the inappropriate items with ‎respect to legal, cultural and ‎religious concerns were omitted. ‎The final checklist of PCPE ‎consists of two subscales: ‎Frequency (frequency of events ‎during last month) and ‎pleasantness (perceived ‎pleasantness of events). The total ‎score consists of frequency ‎multiplied by pleasantness. To ‎test the reliability and validity of ‎the checklist, the PCPE, ‎Depression, Anxiety and Stress ‎Scale (DASS), the Persian ‎version of WHO Quality of Life ‎and the Demographic ‎Questionnaire were administered ‎in a sample of 104 participants ‎‎(50 male and 54 female).‎
Results: Frequency, ‎pleasantness and the total scores ‎of PCPE showed high levels of ‎internal consistency (Cronbach’s ‎alpha, .976, .976 & .974, ‎respectively). Further support for ‎the convergent validity of the ‎PCPE was obtained via ‎moderate negative correlations ‎with depression, anxiety, stress ‎scores in DASS and positive ‎correlation with quality of life as ‎well as respondent’s perceived ‎happiness. There were negative ‎correlations between frequency, ‎pleasantness and total scores ‎and age of the participants ‎‎(Pearson correlation coefficient, r ‎‎= -.194, p<0.05; r = -.270, p<0.01 ‎& r = -.234, p<0.05, respectively).‎
Conclusion‏:‏‎
PCPE as an ‎assessment tool has shown to ‎have good reliability and validity ‎among Iranians. Further steps ‎should be taken to validate this ‎instrument in different ‎psychopathologies such as ‎depression, addiction and ‎obesity.

References

Cuijpers P, van Straten A, Warmerdam L. Behavioral activation treatments of depression: a meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review 2007; 27: 318-326.

Ekers D, Richards D, Gilbody S. A meta-analysis of randomized trials of behavioural treatment of depression. Psychological medicine 2008; 38: 611-623.

Mazzucchelli T, Kane R, Rees C. Behavioral activation treatments for depression in adults: a meta‐analysis and review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 2009; 16: 383-411.

Chartier IS, Provencher MD. Behavioural activation for depression: Efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Journal of affective disorders 2013; 145: 292-299.

Kanter JW, Santiago-Rivera AL, Rusch LC, Busch AM, West P. Initial outcomes of a culturally adapted behavioral activation for Latinas diagnosed with depression at a community clinic. Behavior modification 2010; 34: 120-144.

Zeiss AM, Lewinsohn PM, Munoz RF. Nonspecific improvement effects in depression using interpersonal skills training, pleasant activity schedules, or cognitive training. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 1979; 47: 427-439.

McFall RM. Effects of self-monitoring on normal smoking behavior. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 1970; 35: 135-142.

Latner JD, Wilson GT. Self-monitoring and the assessment of binge eating. Behavior Therapy 2002; 33: 465-477.

Frederiksen LW. Treatment of ruminative thinking by self-monitoring. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1975; 6: 258-259.

Hiebert B, Fox E. Reactive effects of self-monitoring anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1981; 28: 187.

Rapee RM, Craske MG, Barlow DH. Subject-described features of panic attacks using self-monitoring. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 1990; 4: 171-181.

Harmon TM, Nelson RO, Hayes SC. Self-monitoring of mood versus activity by depressed clients. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 1980; 48: 30-38.

O'Hara MW, Rehm LP. Self-monitoring, activity levels, and mood in the development and maintenance of depression. Journal of abnormal psychology 1979; 88: 450-453.

Reaven JA, Peterson L. The effects of self-monitoring on activity level and mood in elderly nursing home residents. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health 1983.

Fuchs CZ, Rehm LP. A self-control behavior therapy program for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1977; 45: 206.

Gallagher DE, Thompson LW. Treatment of major depressive disorder in older adult outpatients with brief psychotherapies. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice 1982; 19: 482.

Lewinsohn P, Biglan A, Zeiss A. Behavioral treatment for depression. In: Davidson P, ed. by. Behavioral management of anxiety, depression and pain. 1st Ed. New York: Brunner/Mazel; 1976.

MacPhillamy DJ, Lewinsohn PM. The pleasant events schedule: Studies on reliability, validity, and scale intercorrelation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1982; 50: 363-380.

Beck J. Cognitive behavior therapy. New York: Guilford Press; 2011.

Watson D, Tharp R. Self-directed behavior: Self-modification for personal adjustment. City: Cengage Learning; 2013.

Leahy RL, Holland SJ, McGinn LK. Treatment plans and interventions for depression and anxiety disorders. City: Guilford press; 2011.

Finan PH, Garland EL. The role of positive affect in pain and its treatment. The Clinical journal of pain 2015; 31: 177-187.

Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour research and therapy 1995; 33: 335-343.

Yousefy AR, Ghassemi GR, Sarrafzadegan N, Mallik S, Baghaei AM, Rabiei K. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF in an Iranian adult sample. Community mental health journal 2010; 46: 139-147.

Waltz C, Bausell R. Nursing research. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.; 1981.

Grosscup SJ, Lewinsohn PM. Unpleasant and pleasant events, and mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1980; 36: 252-259.

Whisman MA, Johnson DP, Rhee SH. A Behavior Genetic Analysis of Pleasant Events, Depressive Symptoms, and Their Covariation. Clinical psychological science: a journal of the Association for Psychological Science 2014; 2: 535-544.

Armento ME, Hopko DR. The Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS): development, validity, and reliability. Behavior therapy 2007; 38: 107-119.

Zautra AJ, Reich JW. Positive events and quality of life. Evaluation and program planning 1981; 4: 355-361.

Published
2016-02-06
How to Cite
1.
Bakht S, Mahdavi Haji T, Ghasemian Shirvan‎E, Ekhtiari H. The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): ‎Development, Validity and Reliability. Iran J Psychiatry. 10(4):246-264.
Section
Original Article(s)