The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): Development, Validity and Reliability
Objective: Experiencing pleasant events during daily life has a significant positive role in the personal mental health and acts as a keystone for “behavioral activation” (BA) interventions. There are serious differences in the pleasant event schedules in different cultures and countries. We aimed to develop a Persian checklist of pleasant events (PCPE) to provide and validate a culturally compatible checklist for Iranians.
Methods: To develop a checklist of pleasant events, inspired by Pleasant Events Schedule (PES) (MacPhillamy & Lewinsohn, 1982), we held three focused group discussions with 24 normal healthy participants from both genders (female = 12) and asked them to mention as much pleasant events as possible. When the list reached saturation level, the inappropriate items with respect to legal, cultural and religious concerns were omitted. The final checklist of PCPE consists of two subscales: Frequency (frequency of events during last month) and pleasantness (perceived pleasantness of events). The total score consists of frequency multiplied by pleasantness. To test the reliability and validity of the checklist, the PCPE, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), the Persian version of WHO Quality of Life and the Demographic Questionnaire were administered in a sample of 104 participants (50 male and 54 female).
Results: Frequency, pleasantness and the total scores of PCPE showed high levels of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha, .976, .976 & .974, respectively). Further support for the convergent validity of the PCPE was obtained via moderate negative correlations with depression, anxiety, stress scores in DASS and positive correlation with quality of life as well as respondent’s perceived happiness. There were negative correlations between frequency, pleasantness and total scores and age of the participants (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -.194, p<0.05; r = -.270, p<0.01 & r = -.234, p<0.05, respectively).
Conclusion: PCPE as an assessment tool has shown to have good reliability and validity among Iranians. Further steps should be taken to validate this instrument in different psychopathologies such as depression, addiction and obesity.
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