Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents and Its Relationship with Social Capital, Life Style and Parents' Personality Disorders: Study Protocol
Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders.
Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation) and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants.
Discussion: This study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.
Kieling C, Baker-Henningham H, Belfer M, Conti G, Ertem I, et al. (2011) Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action. Lancet 378:1515–1525.
Davies S, Heyman I, Goodman R. A. (2003) population survey of mental health problems in children with epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 45: 292-295.
Mohammadi MR, Arman S, Khoshhal Dastjerdi J, Salmanian M, Ahmadi N, Ghanizadeh A, et al. (2013) Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 8(4):152-9.
Bilenberg N, Petersen DJ, Hoerder K, Gillberg C (2005) The prevalence of child-psychiatric disorders among 8–9-year-old children in Danish mainstream schools. ActaPsychiatrScand 111(1): 59–67.
Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H (2003) The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42(10): 1203–11.
Goodman R, Renfrew D, Mullick M (2000) Predicting type of psychiatric disorder from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9(2):129–34.
7. Goodman R, Neves dos SD, RobattoNunes AP, Pereira de MD, FleitlichBilyk B, et al. (2005) The Ilha de Mare study: a survey of child mental health problems in a predominantly African-Brazilian rural community. Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol 40(1): 11–7.
Goodman R, Slobodskaya H, Knyazev G (2005) Russian child mental health–a cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk factors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 14(1): 28–33.
Heiervang E, Stormark KM, Lundervold AJ, Heimann M, Goodman R, et al.(2007) Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46(4): 438–47.
Mullick MS, Goodman R (2005) The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 5-10 year olds in rural, urban and slum areas in Bangladesh: an exploratory study. Soc Psychiatry PsychiatrEpidemiol 40(8): 663–71.
Alavi A, Mohammadi MR, Joshaghani N, Mahmoudi-Gharaei J. (2010) Frequency of Psychological Disorders amongst Children in Urban Areas of Tehran. Iran J Psychiatry 5(2):55-59.
Meltzer H, Gatward R, Goodman R, Ford T. (2003) Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. Int Rev Psychiatry 15(1–2):185–7.
Wittchen H-U, Nelson CB, Lachner G. (1998) Prevalence of mental disorders and psychosocial impairments in adolescents and young adults. Psychological medicine 28(01):109-26.
Kim YS, Leventhal BL, Koh YJ, Fombonne E, Laska E, Lim EC, et al. (2011) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a total population sample. The American journal of psychiatry 168(9):904-12.
Moharreri F, Habrani P, Yazdi AH. Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents of Mashhad in 2009.
Merikangas KR, He JP, Brody D, Fisher PW, Bourdon K, Koretz DS. (2009) Prevalence and Treatment of Mental Disorders Among US Children in the 2001-2004 NHANES. Pediatrics 125(1):75-81.
Cohen LH, McGowan J, Fooskas S, Rose S. (1984) Positive life events and social support and the relationship between life stress and psychological disorder. Am J Community Psychol 12(5):567-87.
Costa-Requena G, Ballester Arnal R, Gil F. (2013) Perceived social support in Spanish cancer outpatients with psychiatric disorder. Stress Health 29(5):421-6.
Karlidere T, Bozkurt A, Yetkin S, Doruk A, Sütçigil L, Nahit Ozmenler K, Ozşahin A. (2007) Is there gender difference in infertile couples with no axis one psychiatric disorder in context of emotional symptoms, social support and sexual function?. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 18(4):311-22.
Akbari Z, Mirzaei M, Azizi R. (2016).The Quantity and Quality of Sleep and their Relationship to Obesity. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 26(137): 128-136.
Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Flynn C, et al. (1997) Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 36: 980–988.
Kaufman, J.; Birmaher, B.; Brent, D.; Rao, U.; Ryan, N. The Schedule for Affective Disorders andSchizophrenia for School-Age Children. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; 1996.
Ghanizadeh A. (2008) ADHD, bruxism, and psychiatric disorders: does bruxism increase the chance of a comorbid psychiatric disorder in children with ADHD and their parents? Sleep Breath 12(4): 375 – 380.
Polanczyk G.V., Eizirik M., Aranovich V., Denardin D., L da Silva T., V da Conceição T., et al. (2003) Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E). Rev Bras Psiquiatr 25(2):87-90.
Millon T., Grossman S., & Millon C. (2015). MCMI-IV: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Manual (1st ed.). Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc.
Millon T.; Millon C.; Davis R.; Grossman S. (2006). MCMI-III Manual (Third ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Education, Inc.
Blais MA, Holdwick DJ Jr, McLean RY, Otto MW, Pollack MH, Hilsenroth MJ.(2003). Exploring the psychometric properties and construct validity of the MCMI-III anxiety and avoidant personality scales. J Pers Assess; 81(3):237-41.
Dyer F.J. (1997). Application of the Millon inventories in forensic psychology. In T. Millon (Ed.) The Millon inventories: Clinical and personality assessment (pp. 124–139) New York: Guilford.
Mooghali A, Bahmanyari H , Daneshvar B , Masoumi R. (2015) The Relationship between Social Capital and Knowledge Management among Staff Personnel of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Media 6(2): 40-51.
Qolychi B.; Moshbeki A. (1385). The role of the social capital in creating of organization intellectual capital (case study of iranian automotive companies two. Management knowlage. 19 year, no. 75, pp. 147 -125.
Abdollahi B.; Farhadi R.; Ahmadipanah M. (2015). Analysis of the impact of social capital and knowledge management on organizational Innovation (Kharazmi University Staff). World Scient i f ic News; 5: 18-31.
Lali M, Abedi A, Kajbaf MB. (2012). Construction and Validation of the Lifestyle Questionnaire (LSQ).
Ahmadi Ardakani Soltani M, Imani Moghaddam M. A Comparative Study of the Role of Life Style and Identity Style and belief system in Donating Blood in Nolunteers and Non-volunteers in Yazd. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Organ. 2016;13(2):89–97.