Iranian Journal of Psychiatry 2017. 12(3):147-153.

Comparing Profile of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Mood Disorder and Control Group in the Iranian Sample
shahram hajirezaei, Abolfazl Mohammadi, Mehdi Soleimani, Fatemeh Rahiminezhad, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, C. Robert Cloninger


Objective: This study was conducted to compare the profile of Temperament and Character dimensions in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder and control group.

Methods: In this causal-comparative study the population consisted of two clinical groups (major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder) and a non-clinical group. The sample was 193 subjects (77 patients with major depressive disorder, 86 patients with bipolar mood disorder, and 30 normal people) with an age range of 18-65 years and the mean age of 40.1. They were selected from Roozbeh psychiatric hospital using available sampling method. Tools used in this research included Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and General Health Questionnaire-28. Collected data were analyzed by statistical methods of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-22 software.

Result: The results of comparing the groups showed that there was a significant difference among groups in dimensions of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness (P <0.05). The results showed that only in the Novelty Seeking dimension, the mean was different in males and females (P <0.05).

Conclusion: In general, our results showed that patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar mood disorder have different personality profile in some dimensions of Temperament and Character compared with control group.


bipolar mood disorder; control group; major depressive disorder; personality profile; temperament and character inventory

Full Text:



Cloninger CR. Feeling good: the science of well-being: Oxford University Press; 2004.

Von Zerssen D, Akiskal HS. Personality factors in affective disorders: Historical developments and current issues with special reference to the concepts of temperament and character. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1998;51(1):1-5.

Akiskal HS, Djenderedjian AH, Rosenthal RH, Khani MK. Cyclothymic disorder: Validating criteria for inclusion in the bipolar affective group. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1977;134(11):1227-33.

Akiskal HS, Placidi GF, Maremmani I, Signoretta S, Liguori A, Gervasi R, et al. TEMPS-I: delineating the most discriminant traits of the cyclothymic, depressive, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments in a nonpatient population. Journal of Affective Disorders. 1998;51(1):7-19.

Cloninger CR. Temperament and personality. Current opinion in neurobiology. 1994;4(2):266-73.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM. Integrative psychobiological approach to psychiatric assessment and treatment. Psychiatry. 1997;60(2):120-41.

Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(12):975-90.

Cloninger CR. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry. 2009;43(11):994-1006.

Engström C, Brändström S, Sigvardsson S, Cloninger R, Nylander P-O. Bipolar disorder: I. Temperament and character. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2004;82(1):131-4.

Nowakowska C, Strong CM, Santosa CM, Wang PW, Ketter TA. Temperamental commonalities and differences in euthymic mood disorder patients, creative controls, and healthy controls. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005;85(1–2):207-15.

Osher Y, Cloninger CR, Belmaker RH. TPQ in euthymic manic-depressive patients. Journal of psychiatric research. 1996;30(5):353-7.

Young LT, Bagby RM, Cooke RG, Parker JDA, Levitt AJ, Joffe RT. A comparison of Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire dimensions in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Psychiatry Research. 1995;58(2):139-43.

Zaninotto L, Souery D, Calati R, Di Nicola M, Montgomery S, Kasper S, et al. Temperament and character profiles in bipolar I, bipolar II and major depressive disorder: Impact over illness course, comorbidity pattern and psychopathological features of depression. J Affect Disord. 2015;184:51-9.

Kampman O, Poutanen O. Can onset and recovery in depression be predicted by temperament? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011;135(1–3):20-7.

Fresan A, Robles-Garcia R, Lopez-Avila A, Cloninger CR. Personality differences according to age and sex in a Mexican sample using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Comprehensive psychiatry. 2011;52(6):774-9.

Farmer RF, Goldberg LR. A psychometric evaluation of the revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the TCI-140. Psychological assessment. 2008;20(3):281-91.

Giakoumaki SG, Karagiannopoulou L, Rozsa S, Zouraraki C, Karamaouna P, Cloninger CR. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning. PeerJ. 2016;4:e1830.

Goncalves DM, Cloninger CR. Validation and normative studies of the Brazilian Portuguese and American versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised (TCI-R). J Affect Disord. 2010;124(1-2):126-33.

Gutierrez-Zotes A, Labad J, Martorell L, Gaviria A, Bayon C, Vilella E, et al. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory: normative data by sex and age from a Spanish normal randomized sample. PeerJ. 2015;3:e1481.

Hansenne M, Delhez M, Cloninger CR. Psychometric properties of the temperament and character inventory-revised (TCI-R) in a Belgian sample. Journal of personality assessment. 2005;85(1):40-9.

Pelissolo A, Mallet L, Baleyte JM, Michel G, Cloninger CR, Allilaire JF, et al. The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R): psychometric characteristics of the French version. Acta Psychiatr Scand.


GUZE SB. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV). American Journal of Psychiatry. 1995;152(8):1228-.

Kaviani H, Poor Naseh M. Validation Of Temperament And Character Inventory (TCI) In Iranian Sample: Normative Data. Tehran University Medical Journal. 2005;63(2):89-98.

Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological medicine. 1979;9(1):139-45.

Chen Z, Lu X, Kitamura T. The factor structure of the Chinese version of the Temperament and Character Inventory: Factorial robustness and association with age and gender. Comprehensive psychiatry. 2013;54(3):292-300.

Zaninotto L, Solmi M, Toffanin T, Veronese N, Cloninger CR, Correll CU. A meta-analysis of temperament and character dimensions in patients with mood disorders: Comparison to healthy controls and unaffected siblings. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016;194:84-97.

Mikolajczyk E, Zietek J, Samochowiec A, Samochowiec J. Personality dimensions measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO-FFI on a Polish sample. International journal of methods in psychiatric research. 2008;17(4):210-9.

Gutierrez-Zotes JA, Cortes MJ, Valero J, Pena J, Labad A. Psychometric properties of the abbreviated Spanish version of TCI-R (TCI-140) and its relationship with the Psychopathological Personality Scales (MMPI-2 PSY-5) in patients. Actas espanolas de psiquiatria. 2005;33(4):231-7.

Vespa A, Ottaviani M, Fossati A, Giulietti MV, Spatuzzi R, Meloni C, et al. Validation of the Italian translation of the Revised Temperament and Character Inventory--TCI-140--in adult participants and in participants with medical diseases. Comprehensive psychiatry. 2015;59:129-34.

Zohar AH, Cloninger CR. The psychometric properties of the TCI-140 in Hebrew. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2011.

Martinotti G, Mandelli L, Di Nicola M, Serretti A, Fossati A, Borroni S, et al. Psychometric characteristic of the Italian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory--revised, personality, psychopathology, and attachment styles. Comprehensive psychiatry. 2008;49(5):514-22.

Sasayama D, Hori H, Teraishi T, Hattori K, Ota M, Matsuo J, et al. Difference in Temperament and Character Inventory scores between depressed patients with bipolar II and unipolar major depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011;132(3):319-24.

Evans L, Akiskal HS, Keck Jr PE, McElroy SL, Sadovnick AD, Remick RA, et al. Familiality of temperament in bipolar disorder: support for a genetic spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2005;85(1–2):153-68.

Farmer A, Mahmood A, Redman K, Harris T, Sadler S, McGuffin P. A sib-pair study of the temperament and character inventory scales in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2003;60(5):490-6.

Harley JA, Wells JE, Frampton CMA, Joyce PR. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression. Depression Research and Treatment. 2011;2011:6.

Janowsky DS, Morter S, Hong L, Howe L. Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients. Bipolar Disorders. 1999;1(2):98-108.

Loftus ST, Garno JL, Jaeger J, Malhotra AK. Temperament and character dimensions in bipolar I disorder: A comparison to healthy controls. Journal of psychiatric research. 2008;42(13):1131-6.

Nery FG, Hatch JP, Glahn DC, Nicoletti MA, Serap Monkul E, Najt P, et al. Temperament and character traits in patients with bipolar disorder and associations with comorbid alcoholism or anxiety disorders. Journal of psychiatric research. 2008;42(7):569-77.

Mula M, Pini S, Monteleone P, Iazzetta P, Preve M, Tortorella A, et al. Different temperament and character dimensions correlate with panic disorder comorbidity in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2008;22(8):1421-6.

Matsudaira T, Kitamura T. Personality traits as risk factors of depression and anxiety among Japanese students. Journal of clinical psychology. 2006;62(1):97-109.

Peirson AR, Heuchert JW. The relationship between personality and mood: comparison of the BDI and the TCI. Personality and Individual Differences. 2001;30(3):391-9.

Bensaeed S, Jolfaei AG, Jomehri F, Moradi A. The relationship between major depressive disorder and personality traits. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry. 2014;9(1):37-41.

Svrakic DM, Whitehead C, Przybeck TR, Cloninger CR. Differential diagnosis of personality disorders by the seven-factor model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1993;50(12):991-9.

Svrakic DM, Draganic S, Hill K, Bayon C, Przybeck T, Cloninger C. Temperament, character, and personality disorders: etiologic, diagnostic, treatment issues. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2002;106(3):189-95.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.