Original Article

Risk Factors Associated with Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization, and Cyberbullying-Victimization in Iran’s High School Students


Objective: This study aimed at finding the risk and protective factors of cyberbullying.

Method: A total of 425 high school students (199 boys and 226 girls) were selected using a cluster randomized procedure. The risk and protective factors included gender, internet use, self-esteem, dark triad traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy), school bullying perpetration, school bullying victimization, interparental conflict, and school climate.

Results: The results of multinomial logistic regression showed that being male, school bullying perpetration, and school bullying victimization can significantly increase the chances of being a cyberbully-victim and spending one hour or less on the internet can significantly decrease the chances of being a cyberbully-victim.

Conclusion: This study provides important implications for any prevention and intervention programs for cyberbullying, which must consider the roles of traditional bullying, gender differences, and internet use in cyberbullying behavior.


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IssueVol 16 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijps.v16i3.6261
Bullying Cyberbullying Internet Use Machiavellianism Narcissism Sex Self-Esteem Students

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How to Cite
Azami MS, Taremian F. Risk Factors Associated with Cyberbullying, Cybervictimization, and Cyberbullying-Victimization in Iran’s High School Students. Iran J Psychiatry. 2021;16(3):343-352.