Profile of Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms among Patients in Tehran
Objectives: Culture may place a differential emphasis on particular emotions. The aim of this study is to find the most frequent symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder in Tehran.
Method: 509 patients were recruited from 5 treatment settings. The sample was used from the project of assessing psychometric properties of CIDI in the Iranian population. The patients were evaluated by conducting clinical interviews and using DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) for major depressive disorder.
Results: Depressed mood (98.7%), sleep change (92.1%) and, fatigue / energy loss (89.4%) were the three highest-ranking symptoms. As cognitive factors, guiltiness and worthlessness were among the lowest ranking symptoms. There were no significant differences between men and women in frequency of symptoms with the exception of suicidal thoughts. Men had significantly higher suicidal thoughts than women. (P: 0. 01)
Conclusion: Data were presented on the depressive symptomatology in population of Tehran. Key findings included a high rate of somatic symptoms in patients who suffered from MDD in this population.
Good BJ, Good MJD, Moradi R. The interpretation of Iranian depressive illness and dysphoric affect. In: Kleinman A, Good BJ, eds. Culture and depression: Studies in the anthropology and cross- cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1985. p. 369-428.
Good MJD, Good BJ. Toward a meaning-centered analysis of popular illness categories:"FRIGHT ILLNESS" and "HEART DISTRESS" in IRAN. In: Marsella AJ, White GM, eds. Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy. Boston: D. Reidel 1982. p. 141-166.
Miller SI, Schoenfeld LS. Suicide attempt patterns among the Navajo indians. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1971; 17: 189-193.
Witherspoon G. Language and Art in the Navajo Universe. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press; 1977.
Kawanishi Y. Somatization of Asians: An Artifact of Western Medicalization? Transcult Psychiatr 1992; 29: 5-36.
Kleinman A. Social Origins of Distress and Disease: Depression, Neurasthenia, and Pain in Modern China. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1986.
Parker G, Cheah YC, Roy K. Do the Chinese somatize depression? A cross-cultural study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001; 36: 287-293.
Krause IB. Sinking heart: a Punjabi communication of distress. Soc Sci Med 1989; 29: 563-575.
Schneider K. The stratification of emotional life and the structure of the depressive states. Zentralblat fuW r Neurologie, Psychiatrie 1920; 59: 281.
Barsky AJ. Amplification, somatization, and the somatoform disorders. Psychosomatics 1992; 33: 28-34.
Bhatt A, Tomenson B, Benjamin S. Transcultural patterns of somatization in primary care: a preliminary report. J Psychosom Res 1989; 33: 671-680.
Cheng TA. Symptomatology of minor psychiatric morbidity: a crosscultural comparison. Psychol Med 1989; 19: 697-708.
Escobar JI, Gomez J, Tuason VB. Depressive phenomenology in North and South American patients. Am J Psychiatry 1983; 140: 47-51.
Stompe T, Ortwein-Swoboda G, Chaudhry HR, Friedmann A, Wenzel T, Schanda H. Guilt and depression: a cross-cultural comparative study. Psychopathology 2001; 34: 289-298.
Kessler RC, Neighbors HW. A new perspective on the relationships among race, social class, and psychological distress. J Health Soc Behav 1986; 27: 107-115.
Kessler RC, Foster C, Webster PS, House JS. The relationship between age and depressive symptoms in two national surveys. Psychol Aging 1992; 7: 119-126.
Newmann JP. Aging and depression. Psychol Aging 1989; 4: 150-165.
Manton KG, Stallard E, Corder L. Education- specific estimates of life expectancy and age- specific disability in the U.S. elderly population: 1982 to 1991. J Aging Health 1997; 9: 419-450.
Cawthron PA, Acuda SW. The clinical presentation of depressive illness at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J 1981; 58: 843-847.
Iwata N, Buka S. Race/ethnicity and depressive symptoms: a cross-cultural/ethnic comparison among university students in East Asia, North and South America. Soc Sci Med 2002; 55: 2243-2252.
Chance NA. Conceptual and methodological problems in cross-cultural health research. Am J Public Health Nations Health 1962; 52: 410-417.
Good BJ, Good MDJ. The cultural context of diagnosis and therapy: A view from medical anthropology. In: Miranda M, Kitano H, eds. Mental Health Research and Practice in Minority Communities: Development of Culturally Sensitive Training Programs. Washington. DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 1986. p. 1–27.
Guarnaccia PJ, Good BJ, Kleinman A. A critical review of epidemiological studies of Puerto Rican mental health. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 1449- 1456.
Jenkins JH. Conceptions of schizophrenia as a problem of nerves: a cross-cultural comparison of Mexican-Americans and Anglo-Americans. Soc Sci Med 1988; 26: 1233-1243.
Manson SM, Shore JH, Bloom JD. The Depressive Experience in American Indian Communities: A Challenge for Psychiatric Theory and Diagnosis. In: Kleinman A, Good BJ, eds. Culture and depression: Studies in the anthropology and cross- cultural psychiatry of affect and disorder. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1985. p. 331-368.
Murphy JM, Hughes CC. The use of psychophysiological symptoms as indicators of disorder among Eskimos. In: Murphy JM, Leigh ton AH, eds. Approaches to Cross-Cultural Psychiatry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 1965. p. 108- 160.
Robins LN. Cross-cultural differences in psychiatric disorder. Am J Public Health 1989; 79: 1479-1480.
Simon GE, VonKorff M, Piccinelli M, Fullerton C, Ormel J. An international study of the relation between somatic symptoms and depression. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1329-1335.
Kirmayer LJ, Young A. Culture and somatization: clinical, epidemiological, and ethnographic perspectives. Psychosom Med 1998; 60: 420-430.
Ebert D, Martus P. Somatization as a core symptom of melancholic type depression. Evidence from a cross-cultural study. J Affect Disord 1994; 32: 253-256.
Gibbs HAR, Lewis B, Pellat CH, Bosworth C, eds. The Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition, 11 vols. Leiden: E.J. Brill; 1960-2002.
Leon H. A recent Japanese study of Lao-tzu: Kimura Eiichi's Rshi no shin-kenky. Monumenta Serica 1961; 20: 311-367.
Experimental Cognition Faculty [homepage on the Internet]. Silverstein, B: The Cognitive Neuroscience, Inc; c [updated 2006 Feb 21; cited 2004 Oct 15]. Available from: http://origin.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/psychology/ECo g/EC_Silverstein.htm.
|Issue||Vol 2 No 1 (2007)|
|Culture Iran Major depressive disorder Sign and symptoms|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|