Iranian Journal of Psychiatry is a peer review scientific Journal published by Psychiatry & psychology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in collaboration with Iranian Psychiatric Association.
The aim of the Journal is to publish articles in English of high scientific quality related to those domains which are presently of interest to psychiatry including: 
Psychopathology, biological psychiatry, cross-cultural psychiatry, psychopharmacology, social & community psychiatry, epidemiology, child & adolescent psychiatry, psychotherapy, neuropsychiatry, psychology, spiritual therapy , as well as animal studies in psychiatry and psychology. 

The scope is to act as an international forum for dissemination of science in the above-mentioned fields. It accepts submissions presented as original articles, short communication, case report, review article (invited), and letter to editor. 

Current Issue

Vol 16 No 4 (2021)

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 108 | views: 123 | pages: 374-382

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate differences in brain networks between healthy children and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an attention test.

    Method: To fulfill this, we constructed weighted directed graphs based on Electroencephalography (EEG) signals of 61 children with ADHD and 60 healthy children with the same age. Nodes of graphs were 19 EEG electrodes, and the edges were phase transfer entropy (PTE) between each pair of electrodes. PTE is a measure for directed connectivity that determines the effective relationship between signals in linear and nonlinear coupling. Connectivity graphs of each sample were constructed using PTE in the five frequency bands as follows: delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. To investigate the differences in connectivity strength of each node after the sparsification process with two values (0.5 and 0.25), the permutation statistical test was used with the statistical significance level of p<0.01.

    Results: The results indicate stronger inter-regional connectivity in the prefrontal brain regions of the control group compared to the ADHD group. However, the strength of inter-regional connectivity in the central regions of the ADHD group was higher. A comparison of the prefrontal regions between the two groups revealed that the areas of the Fp1 electrode (left prefrontal) in healthy individuals play stronger transmission roles.

    Conclusion: Our research can provide new insights into the strength and direction of connectivity in ADHD and healthy individuals during an attention task.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 61 | views: 71 | pages: 383-388

    Objective: Schizophrenia is known as a severe mental disorder worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that rs1344706, located in ZNF804A, is a risk variant for schizophrenia among various populations. The current study was conducted to find correlation between rs1344706 polymorphism and schizophrenia in East of Iran.

    Method: This case-control study assessed 150 schizophrenia cases as well as 150 healthy controls. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped using the Tetra-Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Tetra-ARMS-PCR) method. Analyses based on the Chi-square test and logistic regression were calculated by SPSS.

    Results: The TT, GT, and GG genotype frequencies at rs1344706 in schizophrenia cases were 48.0%, 40.0%, and 12.0%, whereas in controls, they were 49.3 %, 36.7 %, and 14.0 %, respectively. The T and G allele frequencies were 68 % and 32 % in cases and 67 % and 33 % in healthy controls. The results of logistic regression indicated that there is no association between rs1344706 alleles (P = 1.000) and genotypes (P = 0.647 for GT and P = 0.726 for GG) with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Conclusion: Overall, there was no significant relationship between rs1344706 SNP and schizophrenia in Iran's Eastern population. However, further research focusing on more SNPs of ZNF804A and larger samples in other ethnicities is necessary to confirm these results.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 54 | views: 67 | pages: 389-398

    Objective: More than 450 million people are considered to be suffered from mental problem in the world nowadays. In Ethiopia, these problems constitute for 12.45% of the impact of diseases and around 12% of individuals are estimated to be develop any form of mental problems, of which 2% are severe cases. One of the most psychiatric problem that cause substantial functional impairment and suffering is anxiety disorders.

    To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorder and associated factors among voluntary counseling and HIV testing (VCT) clients of Addis Ababa governmental health centers, Ethiopia, 2017.

    Method: An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at Addis Ababa governmental health centers from February 15 to March 10, 2017. A Cluster sampling technique was used and 770 study participants were interviewed. Data were entered into EPI INFO version 2002 and transferred to SPSS version 19.0 windows and was analyzed. The logistic regression of analyses was used.

    Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder among VCT clients was 39.2%. Factors that statistically significant with an anxiety disorder: fear of stigma or social discrimination (AOR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.67, 5.42), history of haven’t been tested before for HIV (AOR = 3.97, 95%CI: 2.32, 6.81), and fear of having a positive result (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.36); the burden of family size was marginally significant at 0.05 level of significance (P = 0.075).

    Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety problems among voluntary counseling and HIV testing clients of Addis Ababa governmental health centers was high. Fear of stigma, fear of having a positive result, and no history of a test before were the most factors associated with anxiety disorders. I recommended that increasing awareness in reducing stigma/discrimination, appropriate psychiatry counseling for individuals and community at the health center, and Addis Ababa Health Bureau should be arranged.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 51 | views: 60 | pages: 399-408

    Objective: It has been shown that clinical practice may be a risk factor for job burnout. On the other hand, annual income may have a protective effect on job burnout. Clinical faculty in contrast to basic sciences faculty members have higher income but are involve in clinical practice. Comparison between these two groups can clarify which factors have greater influence on burnout. As a second aim for this study, reliability and validity of the Persian version of Maslach burnout inventory general survey (MBI-GS) were evaluated as well.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shiraz Medical School in Iran and a total of 241 faculty members were randomly selected and burnout was measured by the Persian version of the Maslach burnout inventory general survey (MBI-GS).

    Results: Comparison of burnout between the two groups indicated that clinical faculty showed significantly higher scores in the exhaustion dimension compared to the basic sciences faculty (p value = 0.017) but no significant differences were found between the two groups in other dimensions. Job satisfaction and income satisfaction were negatively correlated with exhaustion and cynicism dimensions, and job satisfaction was positively associated with professional efficacy (p value > 0.05).

    Internal consistency of the questionnaire was acceptable (α=0.77). Scaling success rate for discrimination and convergent validity were 100% except for convergent validity in the cynicism subscale. Correlation of all questions with their dimensions was equal to or more than 0.4 with the exception of item 13 in the cynicism subscale.

    Conclusion: Clinical faculty had higher burnout than basic sciences faculty especially in the exhaustion dimension. It has also been shown that income and job satisfaction are the most important factors which can predict professional burnout in medical faculty members. It is important for administrative and organizational decision makers to improve job engagement and decrease job abandonment. This study largely confirmed the 3-dimensional structure of the Persian version of MBI-GS.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 67 | views: 141 | pages: 409-417

    Objective: Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling characterized by symptoms of tachycardia, sweating, and stress. The exact relationship between anxiety and cardiovascular disorder is not well distinguished. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anxiety disorders and anthropometric indices and risk factors, including fasting blood sugar (FBS), hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, according to the results, FBS low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and symptoms of cardiovascular disorder in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years.

    Method: In this community-based study, multistage cluster sampling method was used. We randomly selected 1174 children and adolescents who referred to Afshar hospital in Yazd, then, 167 blocks were randomly collected by each cluster head. Each cluster consisted of 6 cases, including three cases of each gender in different age groups (6-9, 10- 14, and 15-18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, cardiovascular risk factors were determined for participants and demographic data were obtained from the participants.

    Results: A total of 1035 children and adolescents participated in this study. The results showed that 228 of the participants (22.2%) suffered from anxiety disorder. There was an indirect significant correlation between anxiety disorder and the symptoms of heart palpitation, shortness of breath, and chest pain. There was no statistically significant relationship between the different types of anxiety disorders and FBS, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. According to the results, FBS and LDL are a predictor for anxiety disorders.

    Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between anxiety in children and adolescents and some risk factors of cardiovascular disorder. Also, this study introduces some cardiovascular predictors of anxiety. However, further studies are needed in this regard.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 60 | views: 47 | pages: 418-429

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the revised Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (ROCI), with emphasis on Iranian culture.

    Method: The statistical sample consisted of 341 married students studying in Tehran universities in the academic year 2018-2019, who were selected by available sampling method. The New ROCI, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and Relationship beliefs inventory (RBI) were the tools of the present study.

    Results: The Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) of the new ROCI were good. Also, there was a significant and negative correlation between all subscales and the total score of the new ROCI with all subscales and the total score of the DAS, and there was also a significant positive correlation between the subscales and the total score of the new ROCI with the subscales and the total score of OBQ, OCI-R, RBI, and DASS. Also, the two factor model explained 54.50% of the variance in the new ROCI. Furthermore, all of the confirmatory factor analysis indices of the new ROCI were better than the original ROCI. The results of test-retest correlation of the factor one and two of ROCI were 0.85 and 0.78, respectively. Also, the Cronbach's alpha of the factor one and two of ROCI were 0.60 and 0.74, respectively.

    Conclusion: In general, it can be said that the new ROCI was different from the original ROCI, and the new ROCI had better indicators than the original ROCI.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 55 | views: 52 | pages: 430-437

    Objective: Recognizing the status of mental health literacy among women and girls as effective and key individuals in family and society seem to be essential. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate depression literacy among women and girls in Tehran on prevention and effective interventions for improving depression.

    Method: This study was part of a large mental health literacy project on residents of Tehran in 2017, with a sample size of 1023 girls and women aged 16-68 years. Random Digit Dialing (RDD) sampling was done using the Australian questionnaire, whose Persian version’s validity and reliability was tested in our previous study. Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 software. In order to determine the effect of demographic variables on predicting depression literacy among participants, multiple regression analysis was performed.

    Results: Receiving counseling, relaxation training, having physical activity, and studying self-help books were the most helpful items, respectively, from the participations’ point of view. More than 70% of participants agreed with avoiding stressful situations and close relationship with family and friends, while only 49.8% agreed with coping skills learning. Based on the regression analysis, only higher education and the history of exposure to a person with similar Vignette problem were able to predict mental health literacy in the area of intervention and prevention.

    Conclusion: Considering the effects of women’s and girls’ depression on individual, family, and even social life, more attention should be paid to improve depression literacy in this group.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 64 | views: 113 | pages: 438-443

    Objective: Internet addiction has become a major problem worldwide, especially for adolescents. Adolescents are considered vulnerable and at risk of internet addiction due to the immature self-control, easy access, and flexible schedule. Parenting style has a significant influence on the incidence of internet addiction in adolescents. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between paternal and maternal parenting style toward internet addiction level of adolescents at one of junior high Schools in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Method: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 114 adolescents (44 boys and 70 girls) aged ranging from 12 to 15 in a junior high school in Surabaya, Indonesia, were recruited by stratified random sampling method in November 2019. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) were used to measure internet addiction level, and maternal and paternal parenting style of adolescents. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests with IBM SPSS Statistics 25 to adjust the relationship between paternal and maternal parenting style toward internet addiction level of adolescents.

    Results: a total of 77.2% of adolescents were internet addicts and the majority experienced ‘mild’ internet addiction level (52.60%). Furthermore, the Pearson correlation results indicated that paternal permissive and authoritarian parenting styles were positively correlated with internet addiction level of adolescents. The multiple regression analysis results indicated that paternal permissive parenting style significantly predicted adolescents’ internet addiction level.

    Conclusion: This study highlighted the significant role of paternal permissive and authoritarian parenting styles among adolescents’ internet addiction.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 32 | views: 54 | pages: 444-450

    Objective: Analog triptorelin is one of the effective agonists for the treatment of reproductive disorders, particularly prostate cancer. Due to results of previous studies, we hypothesized that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD can be effectively treated with the long-term administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog, namely triptorelin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of triptorelin injection in clients with OCD.

    Method: This randomized single-blind clinical trial was performed on 30 clients with OCD who had a Yale-Brown score of > 17 after 8 weeks of treatment. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups of triptorelin and placebo. The clients in the intervention group were treated with Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, in addition to triptorelin three times a month for at least 8 weeks. Clients in the control group received injection of distilled water as placebo three times in addition to the routine treatment. The outcome was evaluated by Yale-Brown OCD scale (Y-BOCS) at the baseline, as well as 4, 8, and, 20 weeks after the end of the treatment.

    Results: The mean scores of Y-BOCS in the intervention and control groups was 30.5 ±67.6 and 30.5 ±67.6, respectively, before intervention, indicating no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.0.8). The comparison of Y-BOCS scores after the intervention showed a significant difference between the two groups in the scores 4 (P = 0.01), 8 (P < 0.005), and 20 (P < 0.005) weeks after the treatment. With regards to the side effects of the medicine, 6.7% (n = 1) of the clients in the control group developed headache and 66.7% (n = 10) had late period in intervention group. The results revealed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of side effects (P < 0.005).

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed triptorelin decreased the symptoms of OCD. The effectiveness of triptorelin in the treatment of symptoms in clients with OCD was confirmed in our study. However, due to the limited research addressing this domain, future studies are suggested to clarify this conclusion.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 34 | views: 43 | pages: 451-461

    Objective: Three categories of interventions are considered for reducing the prevalence of mental disorders in Iran: mental health promotion, increasing mental health and social service utilization and controlling mental health risk factors. In this regard, we designed a community action program in a national plan to provide comprehensive social and mental health services (SERAJ) that were implemented as a pilot in three districts of Iran: Bardasir, Oslo, and Quchan. In this study, we have reviewed the results of this pilot project.

    Method: This study was conducted based on the collaborative evaluation model; first, the program was described and the evaluation indicators of each component of the program were determined. Stakeholders were determined; also, data were collected through literature review, semi-structured interview, and focused group discussion and were analyzed by thematic analysis methods.

    Results: The community action program consists of four components: A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the departments of the districts, People’s Participation House (PPH), Self-reliance Unit (SRU), and actions taken for stigma reduction. A total of 48% of the actions set out in the three MoU of three districts have been executed. The PPH was formed in all three districts. A total of 816 social referrals were admitted to SRU for which a self-reliance process has been initiated. Moreover, 47% of referrals have received services and at least 10 messages for stigma reduction and promoting mental disorders have been sent from different sources at the district level.

    Conclusion: Strengthening vertical cooperation between the national and provincial levels is essential for the full implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) and self-reliance processes. Referring individuals for receiving social support with collaboration between the primary and secondary programs reported to be successful, but feedback to the primary and secondary levels which provides basic and specialized services, is not transparent. Therefore, we suggest an electronic system as an option to solve this problem. The careful selection of representatives of the people's network and empowerment of PPH and directors of the district on community action skills are essential. The experiences of the governors and chairs of health networks of the three districts should be presented at a national conference.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 63 | views: 68 | pages: 462-470

    Epidemiologic and etiological studies of dissociative disorders are a challenging area in psychiatry. These challenges become more complex when noting that the existing theories cannot explain the differences observed in certain cases; for example, studies in Iran have reported the prevalence of dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and depersonalization disorder) as less than 0.6%, and there has been no reported case of dissociative identity disorder (DID) in this country; meanwhile, the prevalence of all dissociative disorders in the general population of the US has been reported as 18.3%, and the prevalence of DID as about 1.1%. Although several studies indicate the high prevalence of dissociative symptoms in many Iranian psychiatric illnesses, dissociative disorders as a stand-alone disorder have a very low prevalence in Iran. The present article attempts to propose a possible hypothesis for the answer to the above questions through a different cultural conceptualization and seeks to be of some help to future studies in this area. Certainly, this hypothesis requires a careful study to be validated.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 52 | views: 53 | pages: 471-479

    Objective: Caregiver burden is defined as the physical, financial, mental, and social problems stemmed from providing care for one of the family members who is involved with a medical problem. The precise measurement of caregiver burden is crucial, and it is essential to have an appropriate and specific tool for measuring caregiver burden. This study will be carried out using sequential exploratory mixed-method design with the aim of development and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire for caregiver burden in family caregivers of hemodialysis patients.

    Method: The study will be done in 2 phases: 1. qualitative study and literature review, and 2. designing and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. In the qualitative phase, family caregivers of hemodialysis patients, patients, nurses, physicians, and social workers will be selected using the maximum variation purposive sampling method. Data will be gathered through semi-structured interviews using a combination of the questions derived from the model and open-ended questions and will be analyzed using directed content analysis. The literature review will be carried out based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to improve the reporting of the systematic review. After developing the primary item pool, in the quantitative phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire will be evaluated. In this regard, face, content, and construct validity (exploratory factor analysis), internal consistency (Alpha’s Cronbach), reliability (test-retest), responsiveness, interpretability, and feasibility of the questionnaire will be assessed.

    Results: The primary questionnaire will be developed based on the qualitative and systematic literature review; then, its psychometric properties will be assessed in the second phase. The result section will consist of the findings of these two phases.

    Conclusion: It seems that a specific questionnaire could be a facilitator of identifying and measuring the actual caregiver burden.

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