Iranian Journal of Psychiatry is a peer review scientific Journal published by Psychiatry & psychology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in collaboration with Iranian Psychiatric Association.
The aim of the Journal is to publish articles in English of high scientific quality related to those domains which are presently of interest to psychiatry including: 
Psychopathology, biological psychiatry, cross-cultural psychiatry, psychopharmacology, social & community psychiatry, epidemiology, child & adolescent psychiatry, psychotherapy, neuropsychiatry, psychology, spiritual therapy , as well as animal studies in psychiatry and psychology. 

The scope is to act as an international forum for dissemination of science in the above-mentioned fields. It accepts submissions presented as original articles, short communication, case report, review article (invited), and letter to editor. 

Current Issue

Vol 16 No 2 (2021)
Published: 2021-04-06

Original Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 4 | views: 8 | pages: 124-130

    Objective: Although comorbidity of psychotic disorders and substance use can lead to increase in mortality, less is known about the outbreak and predictors. Psychotic patients tend to be overlooked during assessment; hence, the possibility of an undertreated or missed condition such as increasing substance use. This investigation aimed to measure the prevalence of substance use in psychotic patients and to survey the powerful predictors.

    Method: In a 1-year cross-sectional study, 311 psychotic patients were assessed using the Structured Interview Based on DSM-5 for diagnostic confirmation as well as questions surveying prevalence and possible predictors of substance use.

    Results: Prevalence of substance use among psychotic patients was 37.9%. Several variables were identified as factors associated with drug abuse among the psychotic patients. These included male gender, younger age, being currently homeless, a history of imprisonment, and having family history of drug use. The strongest predictors of substance use, however, were family history of drug use, male gender, and being currently homelessness.

    Conclusion: Policymakers should note the importance of substance use among psychotic patients. Developing active screening strategies and comprehensive preventive plans, especially in the high-risk population, is suggested.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 4 | views: 6 | pages: 131-136

    Objective: Bipolar I disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders characterized by manic or mixed +/- depressive episodes. Drug treatment has been proved to diminish next episodes, but many other factors are important for exacerbating the conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effective factors on the time and number of episodes in these patients by applying the shared frailty model.

    Method: In this retrospective longitudinal study, the information of 606 patients with bipolar I disorder, admitted for the first time in Ibn-e-Sina psychiatric hospital in Mashhad from the beginning of 2007 until the end of 2009 were used. These patients were followed up until the end of 2018 for readmission. The Cox model with gamma frailty and Bayesian approach were used to determine the effective factors of frequent recurrences.

    Results: History of head trauma, substance abuse, and legal conflict had a positive impact on recurrences, while age had a negative effect on recurrences and the risk of recurrence was higher in younger people (P < 0.05). The variance estimation of frailty effect was 0.97 that indicates a correlation between the recurrence intervals of bipolar I patients, owing to a heterogeneity among patients.

    Conclusion: Based on the results, a higher risk of recurrence of bipolar I disorder was found in younger patients and those with a history of head trauma, substance abuse, and legal conflicts. Further investigations are required to account for the genetic factor and psychosocial exposure during critical periods applying this model.

  • XML | PDF | views: 6 | pages: 137-145

    Objective: Recently, social media use has become prevalent in the daily lives of many adolescents. This study was performed to address adolescents’ sleep quality and depression in relation to social media use.

    Method: This cross-sectional cluster-sampling study was directed on 576 high school students in 2019 in Hamadan, Iran. Three standard self-reported questionnaires were used for recording sleep patterns (Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index (PSQI)), depression (Beck), and Electronic Media Use. Data was analyzed using SPSS. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as being significant.

    Results: Among the adolescents 290 (50.3%) were female and the age median was 17. The average time of all Smart devices used was 7.5±4.4 hours per day. Among all students 62.3 % (359) said that they had their cell phone on in their bedroom when they sleep. In boys, the amount of social media use was significantly more than girls and poor sleep quality had a statically significant relationship with social media use (P-Value = 0.02). Additionally, there was a reverse correlation between the average use of electronic devices and sleep duration (Spearman’s rho = 0.17; P-Value = 0.03), and a direct correlation between the average use in social media and depression (Spearman’s rho = 0.171; P-Value < 0.001).

    Conclusion: In this important age group a high level of electronic devices use and its relationship with sleep quality, daily dysfunction, sleep duration and depression is worthy of issue awareness among health managers, parents and teachers for providing interventional programs, based on standard updated guidelines, in order to reduce the problem and familiarize adolescents and their parents, at home or school, with restrictions on using devices to view and participate in social media.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 14 | views: 15 | pages: 146-153

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale among individuals engaged in weight loss or weight maintenance.

    Method: This descriptive study conducted from October 2019 to February 2020 on social media networks. A total of 420 men and women were selected using consecutive sampling. They completed the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale and the Self-Compassion Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s α, confirmatory factor analysis, and Pearson product-moment correlations.

    Results: Internal consistency for the total score of the Persian version of Weight Control Strategies Scale was excellent and acceptable to good for all 4 subscales (in all cases over α = 0.70). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factor structure of the original model of the scale, but, it was different from the model at the item level. Moreover, the Persian version of Weight Control Strategies Scale had good convergent validity.

    Conclusion: Psychometrically speaking, the Persian version of the Weight Control Strategies Scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess the psychological and behavioral profile of individuals engaging in losing or maintaining weight, both for clinical and research purposes.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 5 | views: 8 | pages: 154-161

    Objective: Comprehensive mental and social health services is the new benefit package which had been aimed to provide mental health services to people who suffer from mental disorders. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of plan and its drivers to provide evidence for decision-making by national policymakers.

    Method: We used the bottom-up costing approach to estimate the cost of plan. We identified the cost centers, services delivery process, and facilities. Data were collected via different sources and tools such as the new financial system, registration forms, and performance reporting forms. We categorized the cost into 4 groups and selected appropriate measures to estimate the cost. We estimate the total and unit cost for 3 levels in 2 scenarios by considering the 2017 prices.

    Results: Screening resulted in 8.9% new detection with a different incidence in urban and rural areas (urban: 16.5%; rural: 2.7%). Also, 61 842 million IRR was spent for the screening, diagnose, treatment, and rehabilitation of detected people in 2017. Personal cost is responsible for 90.6% and primary screening for 66.4% of the total cost.

    Conclusion: For the development of the program (from screening to rehabilitation) 530 513 IRR should be spent per capita. The cost of detection per client can vary due to differences in disease prevalence, especially treatment and rehabilitation costs. It is suggested to consider the variation of the prevalence in expanding the plan to the whole country. Integrating the services in primary health care lead to huge cost saving.


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 3 | views: 4 | pages: 162-167

    Objective: Numerous offshore jobs require 24-hour tasks, such as in industrial workplaces (eg, oil rigs). The purpose of this study was to assess shift work disorder (SWD), insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and depression among Iranian offshore oil rig workers in different shift schedules.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Iranian offshore oil workers at the Persian Gulf. A questionnaire package consisted of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI- II), and SWD filled. The scores were calculated among different groups of shift schedules (fixed-day, fixed-night, swing and standby shift workers). ISI, BDI-II, and ESS scores were also compared between individuals with or without SWD.

    Results: A total of 188 participants were recruited in the study, and all were male. The mean age was 37.06 ± 9.2 years. Among different shift schedules, the highest and lowest ISI and ESS scores were related to fixed-night shifts workers and fixed-day shift workers, respectively. ISI, ESS, and BDI mean scores in different shift schedules were not significantly different (p values = 0.14, 0.57, and 0.93, respectively). SWD was diagnosed in 57 (30.3%) of studied shift workers. The difference between SWD prevalence was not significant between different shift schedules (P value =0.13). Workers with SWD had higher ISI, ESS, and BDI-II score (P values <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively) and workers without SWD had higher job satisfaction (p value = 0.04).

    Conclusion: SWD is considered as a serious health-related issue in Persian Gulf oil rig shift workers. Insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and depression are associated with SWD.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 5 | views: 3 | pages: 168-176

    Objective: A national program on providing comprehensive social and mental health services, entitled “SERAJ” was developed and piloted in three districts of Iran. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of SERAJ by conducting assessments before and after the implementation in the intervention and the control areas.

    Method: This was a controlled community trial that was assessed by conducting repeated surveys in the intervention and the control areas. In total, 2952 and 2874 individuals were assessed in the intervention and the control areas, respectively. The change in prevalence of mental disorders (using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; CIDI), service utilization, mental health literacy, happiness, and perceived social support were measured over 18 months in three districts of Osko, Bardsir, and Quchan as the intervention areas, which were compared with three matched districts as the control areas.

    Results: No significant difference was found in the mean score of happiness between the intervention and the control areas throughout the study period. Most aspects of mental health literacy were improved in the intervention areas after implementing the intervention. The mean score of social support decreased after implementing the intervention in all areas. The prevalence of mental disorders in the intervention districts was significantly reduced after 18 months. The rate of using any mental health services after the intervention was not statistically different between the intervention and the control areas.

    Conclusion: There was no significant change in some indicators in the intervention compared with the control areas. We suggest evaluating SERAJ’s achievements and challenges in the three intervention districts before expanding the implementation of this pilot experience into other districts.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 7 | views: 13 | pages: 177-186

    Objective: Patients’ beliefs and emotions toward an illness can influence their coping responses, illness behaviors, adherence to treatment, quality of life, and even the psychoneuroimmune responses. The aim of present study was to develop and validate a novel questionnaire assessing both rational and irrational beliefs of patients regarding their illness.

    Method: In a cross sectional methodological study, the items of the Illness Belief Network (IBN) were developed regarding patients and clients’ opinions about and attribution of their disease extracted from 400 clinical interviews and were coded based on Leventhal’s self-regulation model. An expert panel coded the items. A total of 400 patients with different medical conditions completed the questionnaire. Participants additionally rated the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire in its revised form (IPQ-R) to assess convergent validity. Construct validity was examined by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach alpha and Intracluster Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for examining Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the IBN.

    Results: The IBN questionnaire was finalized with 84 items, and the results of factor analysis revealed 5 factors: psychosocial causes, environmental causes, control, meaning, and consequence/timeline; extracted factors were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach’s α coefficient for scale was 0.92 and it ranged from 0.79 to 0.89 for the subscales. IBN indicated excellent test-retest reliability results based on ICC 0.842(95%CI: 0.798-0.846). The correlation coefficients of all items exceeded the prespecified acceptable value of 0.40, indicating satisfactory item discriminant validity, and correlation between IBN and IPQ-R subscales were statistically significant (all p values < 0.01), indicating acceptable convergent validity.

    Conclusion: The IBN questionnaire is a valid and reliable phenomenological, non-judging, and clinical tool to assess patient’s rational and irrational or faith-based beliefs about the illness. This tool can be used to improve doctor-patient communication by exploring the complex nature of human thinking.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 6 | views: 7 | pages: 187-197

    Objective: Smartphone is an important technology device in our lifestyle. It has an important part of our daily lives, but it also has a negative effect, such as cell phone dependency. This research aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of mobile phone abuse (MPA) in the Iranian population.

    Method: In this study, data were chosen from 1100 participants who were studying in Tehran universities. The principal version of the scale was translated into Persian using the back translation method. All attendees completed Demographic Questionnaire, MPA Questionnaire, and Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS). Eventually, a clinical interview (based on the fifth version of DSM) was done for all the participants. For data analysis, internal and external consistency, factor analysis, construct validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used. Statistically, less than 0.05 were considered to be ‎ significant.‎

    Results: According to expert judgments, content validity index was satisfactory. Furthermore, the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed with Cronbach’s α of 0.90 and test-retest reliability of 0.56 after 3 weeks. The best cutoff point for this questionnaire (MPA) was 46. Also, 4 factors were extracted by principal components method and varimax rotation: “excessive use of cell phone,” “addictive use of social networks,” “mood modification,” and “preoccupation” for both male and female students.

    Conclusion: MPA could be used in studies on the evaluation of mobile phone addiction. This can be a stepping stone towards the identification of problems and improvement of students’ mobile phone abuse.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 4 | views: 9 | pages: 198-204

    Objective: This study investigated whether a sample of Iranian university students considered posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as negative or positive. Also, possible gender and religiosity differences in understanding of changes in PTD and PTG were evaluated.

    Method: The present cross-sectional study was conducted during 2019-2020. The target sample Consisted of 298 students (mean age = 23.79) from 3 Universities in Esfahan and Tehran (Iran), recruited by convenience sampling. The sample answered to the scales, including Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Posttraumatic Depreciation Inventory; and Iranian version of The Clark and Stark Religious questionnaire.

    Results: Despite the overall support for the PTG and PTD constructs, the present study showed that there are cross-cultural differences that can affect people's perception of item evaluation positively or negatively. In this study, almost all items that were evaluated differently with operationally defined PTG and PTD belonged to “Relating to Others” factor. The result also displayed gender and religiosity differences in perceptions of growth and depreciation.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that it is necessary to identify the concept of PTG and PTD in each culture and the individual differences that may affect the perception of PTG and PDT be considered.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 4 | views: 5 | pages: 205-225

    Objective: There has been little effort to conduct systematic reviews or meta-analyses of the available literature to find global prevalence rates of conduct disorder and analyze the sources of heterogeneity.

    Method: We searched multiple databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify cross-sectional studies with random or nonrandom sampling to assess the global prevalence of conduct disorder in children and adolescents aged under 18 in the general or school-based populations. Quality assessment and data extraction were independently carried out by two authors. Subgroup analysis was used to find the potential sources of heterogeneity.

    Results: We reached 50 studies, incorporating 186,056 children and adolescents from 35 countries. The total prevalence of conduct disorder was 8% (CI: 7-9%; I2: 99.77%), including 7% in females (CI: 4-9%; I2: 99.56%) and 11% in males (CI: 7-15%; I2: 99.74%). The results of subgroup analysis showed that total heterogeneity could be explained by measurement tools. When diagnostic interviews such as the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children—Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) were employed, the pooled prevalence rates for conduct disorder were 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively, and heterogeneity decreased. However, the use of the screening tools such as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)-parent or teacher report and SDQ-self report increased the pooled prevalence of conduct disorder to 10% and 16% respectively.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of conduct disorder in the epidemiological studies should be estimated by employing the diagnostic interviews to reach accurately assessments.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 3 | views: 6 | pages: 226-237

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is an important and preventable risk factor, especially for adolescents and high school students. This issue has become one of the challenges for health system. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking among Iranian high school students.

    Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis study was done by searching PubMed, Scopus, Web Science (WOS), Science Direct, SID, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “student” and “smoking” from 2000 to March 2018. After initial and critical appraisal, data were entered into a checklist and analyzed by a comprehensive meta-analysis software.

    Results: The prevalence of smoking was 7.9% by combining the results of 49 articles. Males and females had 10.6% and 4.5% smoking prevalence, respectively. The overall prevalence of smoking was higher in northern areas in Iran (22.4%). Males in the northern (22.4%) and females in western regions (5.3%) were more smokers. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of smoking with the year of publication, sample size, and age (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: In this study, Students' tendency to smoke was different in various regions of Iran, and had a high rate (7.9%). This figure indicates the necessity for planning some coherent educational programs for the public.

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 4 | views: 11 | pages: 238-242

    Objective: Social problems and drug abuse, especially addiction, divorce, poverty, crime, violence, alcohol consumption, and substance abuse, have increased in Iran over the past two decades. The present study aims to determine an approach to decrease drug abuse and social ‎problems in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Method: A national program on providing comprehensive social and mental health services, entitled “SERAJ”, was developed and piloted in three districts of Iran. To compile this study, three types of data collection have been used: (1) review of the literature, (2) an in-depth interview with experts and stakeholders, (3) focused group discussions.

    Results: In our proposed model for decreasing drug abuse and social ‎problems, comprehensive mental and social health service are provided. Social care is integrated into the primary health care and six types of services, including social health education, screening for risk factors of social problems, and drug abuse, identifying underlying psychiatric, psychological, or social causes, short consultations, referral to social workers, and follow-up.

    Conclusion: Theoretically, if mental disorders are reduced, social harm and addiction will also be reduced because it is one of the important risk factors for divorce, violence, crime, drug abuse, and alcohol consumption. SERAJ reduces mental disorders; therefore, it can reduce social problems and addiction.

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