2021 CiteScore: 2.6
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, MD.
Vol 11 No 2 (2016)
Objective: The aim of this study was to provide norms of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) for undergraduate women in Iran.
Materials and Methods: Undergraduate women (N = 516) completed the EDE-Q, CIA, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES).
Results: Average score, standard deviation, and percentile rank of EDE-Q and its subscale as well as CIA were reported. In addition, the frequency of key eating disordered behaviors was presented. Both EDE-Q and CIA demonstrated strong internal consistency. In addition to the significant correlation between the EDE-Q and CIA (0.59), they both showed a moderate to strong correlation with the BES (r = 0.33 to 0.61). The EDE-Q and CIA successfully differentiated underweight, normal weight, and overweight women. Moreover, women who reported higher level of restraint or regular binge eating episodes obtained higher score on the CIA than women who did not have such behaviors across the same period.
Conclusion: This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the EDE-Q and CIA. The obtained norms for the EDE-Q and the CIA are helpful in clinical practice and intercultural studies of eating disorders.
Objective: Recent studies have emphasized the important role of cognitive beliefs in etiology and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has different subtypes, but the specific role of cognitive beliefs in OCD symptomatology is not clear. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the cognitive factors proposed by Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) could specifically predict subtypes of OCD.
Method: The question was investigated in a sample of 208 university students (mean age = 21, SD = 1.6). The target population was selected by cluster sampling. All participants completed two questionnaires including Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis.
Results: Regression analysis demonstrated that “responsibility/ threat over estimation” was a significant predictor of obsessive and compulsive behaviors and predicted washing, checking, obsessing, hoarding, and neutralizing subtypes of OCD. Furthermore, “perfectionism and intolerance of uncertainty” was the most significant predictor of ordering and hoarding while “importance/ control of thought” predicted ordering only.
Conclusion: This study found evidence in support of Salkovskis’ cognitive theory about the central role of inflated responsibility beliefs in developing different subtypes of OCD. Besides, the results revealed those other cognitive beliefs had less important role in the development of OCD symptoms.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the prediction of depression on a group of Iranian older adults based on components of health locus of control.
Method: Sixty-six men and 42 women over the age of 55 were recruited from the retirement clubs in Shiraz, using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC).
Results: The findings on health locus of control revealed that the highest score was on internal locus of control followed by God, powerful others and chance. The mean score on depression was on a normal range. Multiple regression analysis showed that two independent variables including internal control (ß = -.32, p < 0.01) and God control (ß = -.20, = p < 0.03) significantly predicted depression. The other components of health locus of control such as chance and powerful others as well as age did not predict depression. Findings also revealed that the independents variables explained 26% of the total variance of depression (R2 = .26, p <0.001).
Conclusion: This study provides more support for the application of theory of health locus of control on depression.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad.
Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, and those who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence.
Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia.
Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Therefore, these percentage of psychiatric disorders in Iran lead us toward a greater use of consultation and mental health services.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare creativity in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Method: This was an analytic and descriptive study. Participants were 33 children aged 7-12 years selected from a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic at Imam Hossein hospital (Tehran, Iran), who were diagnosed with ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. They met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and had no comorbidity according to K-SADS (Kiddi-Scadule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia). They were requested not to take any medication. They took the Figural TTCT (Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking) and Raven Intelligence test after using medication. Thirty-three age and sex-matched children selected from the regional schools were recruited for the control group. They did not have any psychiatric disorders according to K-SADS. The Figural TTCT and Raven Intelligence test were conducted for the controls as well.
Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the intelligence score and the mean±SD of the total score of creativity between children with ADHD (125.2 ± 42.6) and the control group (130.6 ± 47.5) (P value = 0.49). Children with ADHD had worse function in fluency and flexibility items and were not different in originality and elaboration items.
Conclusion: The creativity of children with ADHD is not different from that of the control group.
Objective: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently used in first-line treatments for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nevertheless, many of these patients do not respond well to initial therapy. The hypothesis of glutamatergic dysfunction in specific brain regions has been proposed in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the possible efficacy of lamotrigine, a glutamatergic agent in Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Method: This study was a 12-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive fixed-doses of lamotrigine (100 mg) to Serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eligible subjects who had a total Y-BOCS of 21 or above were randomly assigned to receive adjunctive treatment with either lamotrigine (n = 26), or placebo (n = 27). Response to lamotrigine was defined as clinical improvement (>25% decrease in the total Y-BOCS score), which was administered at weeks 0, 8 and 12.
Results: At the endpoint (week 12), significant differences were observed in obsession, compulsion, and total Y-BOCS scores comparing lamotrigine to placebo (P = 0.01, 0.005 and 0.007 respectively). The mean reduction in obsession, compulsion and total scores in lamotrigine group was about 4.15, 4.50 and 8.73, respectively. Similarly, the mean reductions in the placebo group were 2.52, 2.56 and 5.07. Effect sizes for efficacy measures were calculated by Cohen’s d, and it was calculated as 0.54 for the total YBOCS.
Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that this augmentation is well tolerated and may be an effective strategy for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.
Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software.
Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (p<0. 01) respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Objective: The determinants of satisfaction of life (SWL) are poorly described among Iranian employed nurses. This study aimed to assess the effect of various factors including age, gender, marital status, depression, anxiety and stress on SWL among Iranian nurses.
Method: Employed nurses in three teaching hospitals were invited to participate in this study. Ninety-four nurses (65 women and 29 men) participated in this study. Depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS-21) was used to measure the related variables. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was used to assess SWL. Multivariate analysis was utilized to examine the relationship between multiple variables.
Results: A noticeable proportion of Iranian employed nurses were either dissatisfied or extremely dissatisfied with life (45%). Severe depression was related to lower scores of SWLS (P: 0.001, r = -0.32). The similar outcomes were detected between anxiety and stress scales, and SWLS (P: 0.023, r = -0.23 and P: 0.008, r = -0.27 for anxiety and stress, respectively). Although females were more vulnerable to depression (P: 0.010) and stress (P: 0.013), the overall effect of gender on SWL was insignificant (0.41). Satisfactions with financial power and work environment were associated with higher scores of SWLS (P: 0.030 and 0.042, respectively). Marital status was not related to severity of depression, anxiety, stress and SWLS (P: 0.39, 0.38, 0.80, and 0.61, respectively).
Conclusion: This study revealed that poor satisfaction with financial status and work environment, depression, anxiety and stress are the major determinants of satisfaction with life among Iranian employed nurses.
Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders.
Method: ‘Herodotus: The Histories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers.
Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/ punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female).
Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago.