Vol 11 No 2 (2016)


  • XML | PDF | downloads: 427 | views: 498 | pages: 67-74

    Objective: The aim of this study was to provide norms of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) for undergraduate women in Iran.
    Materials and Methods: ‎Undergraduate women (N = 516) completed the EDE-Q, CIA, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES).
    Results: Average score, standard deviation, and percentile rank of EDE-Q and its subscale as well ‎as CIA were reported. In addition, the frequency of key eating disordered behaviors was ‎presented. Both EDE-Q and CIA demonstrated strong internal consistency. In addition to the ‎significant correlation between the EDE-Q and CIA (0.59), they both showed a moderate to ‎strong correlation with the BES (r = 0.33 to 0.61). The EDE-Q and CIA successfully ‎differentiated underweight, normal weight, and overweight women. Moreover, women who ‎reported higher level of restraint or regular binge eating episodes obtained higher score on the ‎CIA than women who did not have such behaviors across the same period.
    Conclusion: This study provided ‎preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the EDE-Q and CIA. ‎The obtained norms for the EDE-Q and the CIA are helpful in clinical practice and intercultural ‎studies of eating disorders.‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 383 | views: 448 | pages: 75-81

    Objective: Recent studies have emphasized the important role of cognitive beliefs in etiology and ‎maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has different subtypes, but the ‎specific role of cognitive beliefs in OCD symptomatology is not clear. The aim of the current ‎study was to determine whether the cognitive factors proposed by Obsessive Compulsive ‎Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) could specifically predict subtypes of OCD.‎
    Method: The question was investigated in a sample of 208 university students (mean age = 21, SD = 1.6). ‎The target population was selected by cluster sampling. All participants completed two ‎questionnaires including Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) and Obsessive Compulsive ‎Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression ‎analysis.‎
    Results: Regression analysis demonstrated that “responsibility/ threat over estimation” was a significant ‎predictor of obsessive and compulsive behaviors and predicted washing, checking, obsessing, ‎hoarding, and neutralizing subtypes of OCD. Furthermore, “perfectionism and intolerance of ‎uncertainty” was the most significant predictor of ordering and hoarding while ‎‎“importance/ control of thought” predicted ordering only.‎
    Conclusion: This study found evidence in support of Salkovskis’ cognitive theory about the central role of ‎inflated responsibility beliefs in developing different subtypes of OCD. Besides, the results ‎revealed those other cognitive beliefs had less important role in the development of OCD ‎symptoms. ‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 264 | views: 364 | pages: 82-86

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the prediction of depression on a group of ‎Iranian older adults based on components of health locus of control.‎
    Method: Sixty-six men and 42 women over the age of 55 were recruited from the retirement ‎clubs in Shiraz, using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research ‎questionnaires including the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the ‎Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC).‎
    Results: The findings on health locus of control revealed that the highest score was on internal ‎locus of control followed by God, powerful others and chance. The mean score on ‎depression was on a normal range. Multiple regression analysis showed that two ‎independent variables including internal control (ß = -.32, p < 0.01) and God control ‎‎(ß = -.20, = p < 0.03) significantly predicted depression. The other components of ‎health locus of control such as chance and powerful others as well as age did not ‎predict depression. Findings also revealed that the independents variables explained ‎‎26% of the total variance of depression (R2 = .26, p <0.001).‎
    Conclusion: This study provides more support for the application of theory of health locus of ‎control on depression.‎‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 331 | views: 466 | pages: 87-98

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in ‎children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad.‎
    Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years through ‎multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. ‎We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ‎‎(SDQ) for the participants, and those who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian ‎version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive ‎analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-‎SADS questionnaire and demographic factors‏. ‏We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant ‎differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence.‎‎
    Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric ‎disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest ‎prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most ‎prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in ‎girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD ‎‎(5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% ‎respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia.‎
    Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-‎SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in ‎this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Therefore, these percentage ‎of psychiatric disorders in Iran lead us toward a greater use of consultation and mental health ‎services‏.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 340 | views: 450 | pages: 99-103

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare creativity in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity ‎disorder.
    Method: This was an analytic and descriptive study. Participants were 33 children aged 7-12 years selected from a ‎child and adolescent psychiatric clinic at Imam Hossein hospital (Tehran, Iran), who were diagnosed with ‎ADHD by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. They met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and had ‎no comorbidity according to K-SADS (Kiddi-Scadule for Affective disorders and Schizophrenia). They ‎were requested not to take any medication. They took the Figural TTCT (Torrance Test of Creativity ‎Thinking) and Raven Intelligence test after using medication. Thirty-three age and sex-matched children ‎selected from the regional schools were recruited for the control group. They did not have any ‎psychiatric disorders according to K-SADS. The Figural TTCT and Raven Intelligence test were conducted ‎for the controls as well. ‎
    Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the intelligence score and the mean±SD of the total ‎score of creativity between children with ADHD (125.2 ± 42.6) and the control group (130.6 ± 47.5) (P ‎value = 0.49). Children with ADHD had worse function in fluency and flexibility items and were not ‎different in originality and elaboration items.‎
    : The creativity of children with ADHD is not different from that of the control group.‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 311 | views: 723 | pages: 104-114

    Objective: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are frequently used in first-line treatments for patients ‎with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nevertheless, many of these patients do not ‎respond well to initial therapy. The hypothesis of glutamatergic dysfunction in specific ‎brain regions has been proposed in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive ‎disorder. This study was designed to evaluate the possible efficacy of lamotrigine, a ‎glutamatergic agent in Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-resistant patients with obsessive-‎compulsive disorder.‎
    Method: This study was a 12-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ‎adjunctive fixed-doses of lamotrigine (100 mg) to Serotonin reuptake inhibitors therapy ‎in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eligible subjects who had a total Y-BOCS of 21 or ‎above were randomly assigned to receive adjunctive treatment with either lamotrigine ‎‎(n = 26), or placebo (n = 27). Response to lamotrigine was defined as clinical ‎improvement (>25% decrease in the total Y-BOCS score), which was administered at ‎weeks 0, 8 and 12.‎
    Results: At the endpoint (week 12), significant differences were observed in obsession, ‎compulsion, and total Y-BOCS scores comparing lamotrigine to placebo (P = 0.01, ‎‎0.005 and 0.007 respectively). The mean reduction in obsession, compulsion and total ‎scores in lamotrigine group was about 4.15, 4.50 and 8.73, respectively. Similarly, the ‎mean reductions in the placebo group were 2.52, 2.56 and 5.07. Effect sizes for efficacy ‎measures were calculated by Cohen’s d, and it was calculated as 0.54 for the total ‎YBOCS.‎
    Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that this augmentation is well tolerated and may be an ‎effective strategy for patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.‎‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 302 | views: 477 | pages: 115-119

    Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under ‎‎"impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the ‎diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone ‎addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.‎
    Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this ‎descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method ‎was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-‎TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the ‎interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software.
    Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the ‎DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was ‎appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High ‎monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. ‎Internal reliability (Kappa) and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 ‎‎(p<0. 01) respectively.‎
    Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of ‎DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, ‎and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.‎

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 313 | views: 513 | pages: 120-127

    Objective: The determinants of satisfaction of life (SWL) are poorly described among Iranian employed ‎nurses. This study aimed to assess the effect of various factors including age, gender, marital ‎status, depression, anxiety and stress on SWL among Iranian nurses.‎
    Method: Employed nurses in three teaching hospitals were invited to participate in this study. Ninety-four ‎nurses (65 women and 29 men) participated in this study. Depression, anxiety, stress scale ‎‎ (DASS-21) was used to measure the related variables. Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was ‎used to assess SWL. Multivariate analysis was utilized to examine the relationship between ‎multiple variables.
    Results: A noticeable proportion of Iranian employed nurses were either dissatisfied or extremely ‎dissatisfied with life (45%). Severe depression was related to lower scores of SWLS (P: 0.001, r ‎‎= -0.32). The similar outcomes were detected between anxiety and stress scales, and SWLS (P: ‎‎0.023, r = -0.23 and P: 0.008, r = -0.27 for anxiety and stress, respectively). Although females ‎were more vulnerable to depression (P: 0.010) and stress (P: 0.013), the overall effect of gender ‎on SWL was insignificant (0.41). Satisfactions with financial power and work environment were ‎associated with higher scores of SWLS (P: 0.030 and 0.042, respectively). Marital status was not ‎related to severity of depression, anxiety, stress and SWLS (P: 0.39, 0.38, 0.80, and 0.61, ‎respectively). ‎
    Conclusion: This study revealed that poor satisfaction with financial status and work environment, ‎depression, anxiety and stress are the major determinants of satisfaction with life among Iranian ‎employed nurses.‎

Short Communication(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 222 | views: 469 | pages: 128-132

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ‎ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders.‎
    Method: ‎‘Herodotus: The Histories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the ‎Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. ‎Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, ‎methods, and probable triggers.‎
    Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks ‎and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in ‎response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of ‎dishonour/ punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others ‎included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female).‎
    Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless ‎members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by ‎burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and ‎Persian people more than two millennia ago.‎